Abstract

We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
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2008

2007

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R. Le Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, Opt. Commun. 247, 471 (2005).
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V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, Opt. Commun. 204, 399 (2002).
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2000

1994

1968

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Aka, G.

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, Opt. Commun. 204, 399 (2002).
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Aubry, N.

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
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Balembois, F.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 38, 3013 (2013).
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L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

Bjurshagen, S.

Bowers, M. S.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and A. D. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Buchter, S. C.

O. Kimmelma, I. Tittonen, and S. C. Buchter, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 3, 08008 (2008).
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Cadatal-Raduban, M.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canalias, C.

Clow, K.

Délen, X.

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dergachev, A.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deyra, L.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 38, 3013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Diderjean, J.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Didierjean, J.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 38, 3013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

Dutta Roy, S.

S. Dutta Roy and S. Gangopadhyay, Appl. Phys. B 97, 129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

S. Dutta Roy and S. Gangopadhyay, Appl. Phys. B 97, 129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Deyra, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 38, 3013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenberger, D. C.

Hansson, G.

Hollemann, G.

Huang, L.

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, I. H. Yoon, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 31, 781 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, S.

Kagebayashi, Y.

Y. Morimoto, S. Miyazawa, and Y. Kagebayashi, J. Mater. Res. 16, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

Kimmelma, O.

O. Kimmelma, I. Tittonen, and S. C. Buchter, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 3, 08008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, A. D.

G. D. Boyd and A. D. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

Kunz, R. R.

Laurell, F.

Le Targat, R.

R. Le Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, Opt. Commun. 247, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

R. Le Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, Opt. Commun. 247, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, Opt. Commun. 204, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martial, I.

L. Deyra, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 38, 3013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

Y. Morimoto, S. Miyazawa, and Y. Kagebayashi, J. Mater. Res. 16, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, S. Miyazawa, and Y. Kagebayashi, J. Mater. Res. 16, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osada, A.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmacci, S.

Pasiskevicius, V.

Peik, E.

Rothschild, M.

Sangla, D.

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittonen, I.

O. Kimmelma, I. Tittonen, and S. C. Buchter, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 3, 08008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trautmann, T. M.

Vivien, D.

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, Opt. Commun. 204, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

Wang, P.

Wang, R.

Wang, S.

Wen, W. Q.

Wynn, C. M.

Yao, J. Q.

Yoon, C. S.

J. H. Jang, I. H. Yoon, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 31, 781 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, I. H.

J. H. Jang, I. H. Yoon, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 31, 781 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. Y.

Zhang, H.

Zondy, J.-J.

R. Le Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, Opt. Commun. 247, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

X. Délen, I. Martial, J. Didierjean, N. Aubry, D. Sangla, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 104, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Deyra, I. Martial, F. Balembois, J. Diderjean, and P. Georges, Appl. Phys. B 111, 573 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta Roy and S. Gangopadhyay, Appl. Phys. B 97, 129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. D. Boyd and A. D. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub.

O. Kimmelma, I. Tittonen, and S. C. Buchter, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 3, 08008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

Y. Morimoto, S. Miyazawa, and Y. Kagebayashi, J. Mater. Res. 16, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Takahashi, A. Osada, A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, M. Cadatal-Raduban, T. Shimizu, and N. Sarukura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 080211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, Opt. Commun. 204, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, Opt. Commun. 247, 471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

J. H. Jang, I. H. Yoon, and C. S. Yoon, Opt. Mater. 31, 781 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average power (triangles) and conversion efficiency (circles) from 946 to 473 nm with BiBO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Beam profiles and beam qualities at 946 and 473 nm after SHG in the 10 mm BiBO crystal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average power (triangles) and conversion efficiency (circles) from 946 to 236.5 nm for BBO.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Beam profile at 236.5 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Stability of the UV average power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Material and Nonlinear Properties of Crystals for Blue SHG (QPM = Quasi-Phase-Matched)

Equations (1)

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ξ=L2Zr=2.84.

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