Abstract

Spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging is an emerging biomedical imaging modality which can be used to simultaneously identify multiple optical absorbers in tissue. With current technology, the image acquisition time is limited primarily by the laser repetition rate, and sPA image acquisition can take seconds to minutes, depending on the system and imaging volume. We have developed an algorithm that can be used to eliminate extraneous wavelengths and decrease image acquisition time while maintaining image quality. Here, we show the effect the wavelength selection has on in vivo sPA imaging. As an example, dye draining to the lymph node of a mouse was imaged. We demonstrate that sPA image quality is more accurately preserved when wavelengths are chosen based on the spectral features of the absorbers compared to often-used selection of evenly spaced wavelengths. In fact, only three wavelengths are needed to accurately spectrally unmix the dye from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, and S. Emelianov, Trends Biotechnol. 29, 213 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, Opt. Express 16, 3362 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Jansen, A. F. van der Steen, H. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, Opt. Lett. 36, 597 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, G. P. Luke, and S. Y. Emelianov, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2540 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e137 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).
  12. D. Modgil and P. J. La Riviére, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7231 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).
  15. G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e137 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

D. Modgil and P. J. La Riviére, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2002 (1)

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Amirian, J.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amirian, J. H.

Bashyam, A.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bekele, B. N.

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Bodapati, S.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bohndiek, S.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-S.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, G. P. Luke, and S. Y. Emelianov, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deán-Ben, X. L.

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e137 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dragulescu-Andrasi, A.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, and S. Emelianov, Trends Biotechnol. 29, 213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S. Y.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, G. P. Luke, and S. Y. Emelianov, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, Opt. Express 16, 3362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fidler, I. J.

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Gambhir, S. S.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gowrishankar, G.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Green, C.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harlaar, N.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

Herzog, E.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrands, J.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holsinger, F. C.

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Homan, K. A.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, K.

Jasser, S. A.

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Jiang, H.

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

Karpiouk, A.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kothapalli, S.-R.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

La Riviére, P. J.

D. Modgil and P. J. La Riviére, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levi, J.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Litovsky, S.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Litovsky, S. H.

Luke, G. P.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, G. P. Luke, and S. Y. Emelianov, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, and S. Emelianov, Trends Biotechnol. 29, 213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Makhija, S.

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mallidi, S.

S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, and S. Emelianov, Trends Biotechnol. 29, 213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Modgil, D.

D. Modgil and P. J. La Riviére, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. N.

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

Nam, S. Y.

G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oosterhuis, J. W.

Razansky, D.

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e137 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sethuraman, S.

Smalling, R.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smalling, R. W.

Souza, M.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Starcevic, D.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taruttis, A.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tisma, A.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Truby, R.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Beusekom, H. M.

van Dam, G.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van der Steen, A. F.

van Soest, G.

Vreeland, E.

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

Yan, X.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yeager, D.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.-K.

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

Zeebregts, C.

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

K. A. Homan, M. Souza, R. Truby, G. P. Luke, C. Green, E. Vreeland, and S. Emelianov, ACS Nano 6, 641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. P. Luke, D. Yeager, and S. Y. Emelianov, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Cancer Res. (2)

J. Levi, S.-R. Kothapalli, S. Bohndiek, J.-K. Yoon, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, C. Nielsen, A. Tisma, S. Bodapati, G. Gowrishankar, X. Yan, C. Chan, D. Starcevic, and S. S. Gambhir, Clin. Cancer Res. 19, 1494 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Myers, F. C. Holsinger, S. A. Jasser, B. N. Bekele, and I. J. Fidler, Clin. Cancer Res. 8, 293 (2002).

J. Photoacoust. (1)

G. P. Luke, S. Y. Nam, and S. Y. Emelianov, J. Photoacoust. 1, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. X-ray Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. He, and H. Jiang, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 18, 415 (2010).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e137 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Imag. Biol. (1)

D. Razansky, N. Harlaar, J. Hillebrands, A. Taruttis, E. Herzog, C. Zeebregts, G. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, Mol. Imag. Biol. 14, 277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

G. P. Luke, A. Bashyam, K. A. Homan, S. Makhija, Y.-S. Chen, and S. Y. Emelianov, Nanotechnology 24, 455101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. Modgil and P. J. La Riviére, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

S. Mallidi, G. P. Luke, and S. Emelianov, Trends Biotechnol. 29, 213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38, 2098 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Three-dimensional ultrasound image of a mouse depicting the dye injection site and imaging plane (red box). (b) Overlaid ultrasound and sPA image showing Hb and HbO 2 (blue and red, respectively) and MMPSense dye (yellow). Scale bar = 1 mm .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot demonstrating that σ min decreases as wavelengths are removed. This decrease is much less drastic and much more predictable when σ min selection is used (solid line) than when either condition number selection (dotted line) or evenly spaced wavelengths are used (dashed line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RMS error of the absorber concentrations estimated from between 3 and 29 wavelengths. The wavelengths were selected using either even spacing (dashed line), condition number selection (dotted line), or σ min selection (solid line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectra of Hb (blue), HbO 2 (red), and MMPSense dye (yellow) with the three selected wavelengths using even spacing (triangles), condition number selection (squares), and σ min selection (circles), and the sPA images generated from (b) the evenly spaced wavelengths, (c) the condition-number-selected wavelengths, and (d) the σ min -selected wavelengths. Scale bars = 1 mm .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectra of the three absorbers with the six selected wavelengths using even spacing (triangles), condition number selection (squares), and σ min selection (circles), and the sPA images generated from (b) the evenly spaced wavelengths, (c) the condition-number-selected wavelengths, and (d) the σ min selected wavelengths. Scale bars = 1 mm .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ est ( λ ) = ε ( λ ) C ,
C C ˜ 1 σ min μ est μ ˜ est ,
C C ˜ C σ max σ min μ est μ ˜ est μ est .

Metrics