Abstract

We implemented an optical frequency standard based on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) at 1.39 μm. The emission frequency of an extended-cavity diode laser was actively stabilized against the center of the 44,144,0 transition of the H2O18 ν1+ν3 band, under optical saturation conditions. The nonlinear regime of laser-gas interaction was reached by using an optical cavity with a finesse of about 8700. By filling it with an O18-enriched water sample at a pressure of a few Pa, the Lamb dip could be observed with a full width at half-maximum of about 2 MHz. Absolute frequency stabilization was obtained by locking the cavity resonance to the center of the sub-Doppler signal, which was provided by the NICE-OHMS technique under the dispersion regime of operation. An Allan deviation analysis demonstrated a relative frequency stability of 5×1013 for an integration time of 1 s. For longer integration times, the flicker frequency noise floor set the stability at the level of 4×1014.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 397, 012029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Lett. 37, 4422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 18, 18580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2006

J. L. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, A. McIlory, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

1996

1984

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Bell, C. L.

Bernhardt, B.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, A.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlory, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cancio Pastor, P.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Casa, G.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castrillo, A.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, N. Colluccelli, L. Gianfrani, and P. Laporta, Opt. Lett. 34, 3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colluccelli, N.

Consolino, L.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Vizia, M. D.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dinesan, H.

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

Ehlers, P.

Fasci, E.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, N. Colluccelli, L. Gianfrani, and P. Laporta, Opt. Lett. 34, 3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Galzerano, G.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, N. Colluccelli, L. Gianfrani, and P. Laporta, Opt. Lett. 34, 3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gambetta, A.

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 397, 012029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, N. Colluccelli, L. Gianfrani, and P. Laporta, Opt. Lett. 34, 3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, R. W. Fox, and L. Hollberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 21, 1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, G.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hummer, D. G.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kolachevsky, N.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kunasz, C. V.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, H. Dinesan, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. A 86, 052515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, N. Colluccelli, L. Gianfrani, and P. Laporta, Opt. Lett. 34, 3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Ma, W.

Maistrou, A.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

G. Galzerano, A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 102, 725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gambetta, E. Fasci, A. Castrillo, M. Marangoni, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, New J. Phys. 12, 103006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, A.

C. G. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Predehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McCall, B. J.

McIlory, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlory, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merlone, A.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, L.

L. Moretti, A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, M. D. De Vizia, G. Casa, G. Galzerano, A. Merlone, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D.

J. Bood, A. McIlory, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pachucki, K.

P. Cancio Pastor, L. Consolino, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 143001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parthey, C. G.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup: ECDL, extended-cavity diode laser; OI, optical isolator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; fPDH, PDH modulation frequency; fm, modulation frequency at the cavity FSR splitting frequency; DBM, double balanced mixer; LP, low-pass filter; BP, bandpass filter at 711 MHz; ΔΦ, phase shifter; λ/4, quarter wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, fast photodiode; RF AMP, radio-frequency amplifier; AMP, transimpedance amplifier; PS-2WAY, two-way radio-frequency power splitter; DAQ, data acquisition card.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of saturated absorption spectroscopy. The upper plot shows the Lamb dip for the 44,144,0 line of the H2O18 ν1+ν3 band at λ=1389.0839nm, along with the fit to a Lorentzian profile (red line) at a pressure 2.7Pa (20 mTorr). The lower plot gives the NICE-OHMS profile in the dispersion regime of operation. The blue trace, in a magnified scale, represents the NICE-OHMS signal, as recorded in the absorption regime.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Allan deviation analysis of the residual frequency fluctuations of the stabilized ECDL. The upper plot results from the time behavior of the NICE-OHMS error signal, as recorded with a sampling time of 4 ms. Calculated Allan deviations as a function of the integration times are shown in the lower plot (with absolute values on the left axis and relative ones on the right axis). The relative stability is 5×1013 for an integration time of 1 s. Colored lines do not correspond to a fit of the data.

Equations (1)

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S0,0(θ,νν0,G0)=η2FπJ0(β)J1(β)P0SNL2X0,0(νν0,G0)sinθ,

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