Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated a free spectrum range (FSR) tunable comb filter based on a programmable thermo-controlled Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The device is constructed by sandwiching a length of ethanol-filled photonic crystal fiber between single-mode fibers. A digital thermal printer head is used to facilitate the interference as well as to adjust the phase difference by selectively activating the independent heating elements, thus the FSR can be digitally tuned conveniently. The filter shows a feature of periodic equalized passbands with flat-top steep-edge as well as a high extinction ratio over a very wide range of wavelengths from 1.52 to 1.58 μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Araújo, F. M.

Aref, S. H.

Caldas, P.

Carvalho, J. P.

Chan, H. P.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

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[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Cui, H.

Deng, Y.

Dong, X.

Farahi, F.

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazão, O.

Fu, S.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

Gu, X. J.

Gunnarsson, O.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, and L. Kjellberg, J. Opt. A 9, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Helmfrid, S.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, and L. Kjellberg, J. Opt. A 9, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

Huang, X.

H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Shen, and X. Huang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D.

Jiang, M.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, L.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, and L. Kjellberg, J. Opt. A 9, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Li, S.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. Y.

Li, X.

Liao, H.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Q. Ngo, D. Liu, S. C. Tjin, X. Dong, and P. Shum, Opt. Lett. 30, 2994 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, A.

Luo, Z.

Meng, H.

H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Shen, and X. Huang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mizunami, T.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Nalawade, S. M.

S. M. Nalawade and H. V. Thakur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

Nguyen, L. V.

Pal, B. P.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, I.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, and L. Kjellberg, J. Opt. A 9, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ping Shum, P.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quyen Dinh, X.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Shen, W.

H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Shen, and X. Huang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, T.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Shum, P. P.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

Tan, X.

Tang, M.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, H. V.

S. M. Nalawade and H. V. Thakur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

Tong, W.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Shen, and X. Huang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Zhang, M. Tang, Y. Xie, H. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 112, 479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. Ping Shum, and X. Quyen Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. M. Nalawade and H. V. Thakur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Shen, and X. Huang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, and L. Kjellberg, J. Opt. A 9, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the system configuration. The inset shows the cross sectional view of the PCF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum with (black curve) and without (red curve) ethanol filled when no heating was applied.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transverse mode field intensity distribution, (a), (c), and (e) HE11 mode, (b), (d), and (f) HE21 mode, when w/o ethanol filled (a) and (b), with ethanol filled but w/o heating (c) and (d), and with ethanol filled and heated (e) and (f), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic diagram of the thermally-induced MZI; (b) and (d) are input spectrum and output spectrum, respectively; (c) is the enlarged view of the heating region from the infrared thermal imaging camera.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra with different heating lengths (a) 5 mm, (b) 6.25 mm, (c) 7.5 mm, and the FSRs are 2.616 nm, 2.238 nm, and 2.081 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Properties of the filters, the y axis is shown on a logarithmic scale.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔλFSRλ2/(Δneff·L),
2πΔnL/λ=2Nπ,N=1,2,3
Δn1(2πλ22πλ1)(LL)+0LΔn2(z)(2πλ22πλ1)dz=2π,
Δn1(LL)+0LΔn2(z)dzλ2ΔλFSR.

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