Abstract

We describe the characteristics of the planar-waveguide external cavity diode laser (PW-ECL). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first butterfly-packaged 1064 nm semiconductor laser that is stable enough to be locked to an external frequency reference. We evaluated its performance from the viewpoint of precision experiments. Using a hyperfine absorption line of iodine, we suppressed its frequency noise by a factor of up to 104 at 10 mHz. The PW-ECL’s compactness and low cost make it a candidate to replace traditional Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillators and fiber lasers in applications that require a single longitudinal mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Numata, J. Camp, M. A. Krainak, and L. Stolpner, Opt. Express 18, 22781 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Danzmann, and the LISA Study Team, Class. Quantum Grav. 13, A247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. https://www.elisascience.org/ .
  9. W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).
  10. Redfern Integrated Optics Inc., http://www.rio-inc.com (California, USA).
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  12. K. Vahala and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 501 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Vahala, “Dynamic and spectral features of semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 1985), Chapter 4.
  14. C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Quetschke, “Korrelationen von rauschquellen bei Nd:YAG lasersystemen,” Ph.D. thesis (Universit at Hannover, 2003).
  16. J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Numata and J. Camp, Appl. Opt. 47, 6832 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Ascheid and H. Meyr, IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 2228 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Numata and J. Camp, Appl. Opt. 47, 6832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Danzmann, and the LISA Study Team, Class. Quantum Grav. 13, A247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

K. Vahala and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 501 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Ascheid and H. Meyr, IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 2228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alalusi, M.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Alalusi, P. Mols, and L. Stolpner, “Achieving low phase noise in external cavity laser implemented using planar lightwave circuit technology,” U.S. patent8,295,320 B2 (October23, 2012).

Ascheid, G.

G. Ascheid and H. Meyr, IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 2228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barish, B.

B. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brasil, P.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Calonico, D.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calosso, C. E.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Camp, J.

Carpenter, K. G.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clivati, C.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Costanzo, G. A.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, and the LISA Study Team, Class. Quantum Grav. 13, A247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

deVine, G.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Doermann, G.

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, C. J.

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ess, K.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Folkner, W. M.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Godone, A.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goullioud, R.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, J.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Klipstein, W. M.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Krainak, M. A.

Lam, T. T.-Y.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Lee, S.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, J.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Levi, F.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Mehnert, A.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyr, H.

G. Ascheid and H. Meyr, IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 2228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mols, P.

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Alalusi, P. Mols, and L. Stolpner, “Achieving low phase noise in external cavity laser implemented using planar lightwave circuit technology,” U.S. patent8,295,320 B2 (October23, 2012).

Mura, A.

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Numata, K.

Picard, S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, R.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Postman, M.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quetschke, V.

V. Quetschke, “Korrelationen von rauschquellen bei Nd:YAG lasersystemen,” Ph.D. thesis (Universit at Hannover, 2003).

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Sparks, W. B.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spero, R.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Stephens, N. Yu. M.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Stolpner, L.

K. Numata, J. Camp, M. A. Krainak, and L. Stolpner, Opt. Express 18, 22781 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Alalusi, P. Mols, and L. Stolpner, “Achieving low phase noise in external cavity laser implemented using planar lightwave circuit technology,” U.S. patent8,295,320 B2 (October23, 2012).

Thompson, R.

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Thronson, H.

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 501 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala, “Dynamic and spectral features of semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 1985), Chapter 4.

Weiss, R.

B. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

K. Vahala and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 501 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zijll, M. V.

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 501 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav.

K. Danzmann, and the LISA Study Team, Class. Quantum Grav. 13, A247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

G. Ascheid and H. Meyr, IEEE Trans. Commun. 30, 2228 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Today

B. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Alalusi, P. Brasil, S. Lee, P. Mols, L. Stolpner, A. Mehnert, and S. Li, Proc. SPIE 7316, 73160X (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Postman, W. B. Sparks, F. Liu, K. Ess, J. Green, K. G. Carpenter, H. Thronson, and R. Goullioud, Proc. SPIE 8442, 84421T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. J. Erickson, M. V. Zijll, G. Doermann, and D. S. Durfee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Quetschke, “Korrelationen von rauschquellen bei Nd:YAG lasersystemen,” Ph.D. thesis (Universit at Hannover, 2003).

K. Vahala, “Dynamic and spectral features of semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, 1985), Chapter 4.

https://www.elisascience.org/ .

W. M. Folkner, G. deVine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu. M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, and D. A. Shaddock, in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Redfern Integrated Optics Inc., http://www.rio-inc.com (California, USA).

M. Alalusi, P. Mols, and L. Stolpner, “Achieving low phase noise in external cavity laser implemented using planar lightwave circuit technology,” U.S. patent8,295,320 B2 (October23, 2012).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) Schematic of the PW-ECL. (See main text for definitions of abbreviations.) (Right) Relationship among the lasing wavelength, PLC gratings’ reflectivity, and gain chip’s gain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured output wavelength dependence on the injection current and TEC temperature. A and B indicate the two (optimal and nonoptimal) operating points tested.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured output power dependence on the injection current and TEC temperature.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output optical spectra measured by a scanning FP.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frequency-tuning transfer function.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Power-tuning transfer function.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Frequency noise of NPRO and PW-ECL at the two operating points.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Frequency noise of the PW-ECL with and without frequency stabilization.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

RIN of NPRO and PW-ECL at the two operating points.

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