Abstract

A compact single-mode photonic crystal fiber single-mode fiber tip (SPST) refractive index sensor is demonstrated in this Letter. A CO2 laser cleaving technique is utilized to provide a clean-cut fiber tip, which is then coated by a layer of gold to increase reflection. An average sensitivity of 39.1nm/RIU and a resolvable index change of 2.56×104 are obtained experimentally with a 3.2μm diameter SPST. The temperature dependence of this fiber-optic sensor probe is presented. The proposed SPST refractometer is also significantly less sensitive to temperature and an experimental demonstration of this reduced sensitivity is presented in the Letter. Because of its compactness, ease of fabrication, linear response, low temperature dependency, easy connectivity to other fiberized optical components and low cost, this refractometer could find various applications in chemical and biological sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, T. Lee, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, L. Bo, C. Guan, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Opt. Lett. 38, 3795 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, M. Ding, L. Bo, C. Guan, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, and G. Brambilla, Opt. Lett. 38, 4617 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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K. Mileńko, D. Hu, P. Shum, T. Zhang, J. Lim, Y. Wang, T. Woliński, H. Wei, and W. Tong, Opt. Lett. 37, 1373 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

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[CrossRef]

M. Han, F. W. Guo, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Lett. 35, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

2009

2008

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[CrossRef]

Bai, Z. Y.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L.

Brambilla, G.

Caldas, P.

Ding, M.

Farrell, G.

Feng, J.

Frazao, O.

Gao, S. C.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Geng, P. C.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, N.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

Guo, F. W.

Han, M.

Han, Q.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D.

Huang, J.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaur, A.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kou, J. L.

Lan, X. W.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, T. Lee, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. L.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. M.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

Lougnot, D. J.

Lu, Y. F.

Lu, Y. Q.

Marques, P. V. S.

Meng, H. Y.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milenko, K.

Miranto, H.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sadowski, J. W.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Semenova, Y.

Shen, W.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Soppera, O.

Tan, C. H.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W.

Turck, C.

Viitala, T.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. C.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, Y.

Wei, H.

Wei, T.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, T.

Wu, Q.

Xiao, H.

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Xue, X. L.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yliperttula, M.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. B.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, W. G.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 888 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Han, X. W. Lan, J. Huang, A. Kaur, T. Wei, Z. Gao, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, T. Lee, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, C. H. Tan, and X. G. Huang, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 150, 226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the proposed PCF half-taper sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup for fabricating a PCF half-taper.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscope image of (a) the PCF tip and (b) zoomed image of the PCF tip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflectivity of the SPS half-taper in air after CO2 laser cleaving and gold coating process.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for RI measurement.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Spectral shift of the peak at 1546nm for an RI increasing from 1.33 to 1.36; (b) the wavelength shift of the peak as a function of RI.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental setup to study the temperature stability of the SPST.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Temperature dependence of the reflectivity of the SPST device.

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