Abstract

The fabrication and performance of an optically addressed spatial light modulator (OASLM) based on nematic liquid crystal and nanodimensional amorphous arsenic trisulfide (a-As2S3) chalcogenide glassy films are described. The photoconductive a-As2S3 layers are used both as photoalignment material and as a photosensor. The use of the OASLM as a color converter is demonstrated in the transmission mode. The phase retardation dynamic range is over 3π. Diffraction efficiency measurements show a high resolution (150lp/mm at 50% MTF). A wide variety of materials from the chalcogenide glass (ChG) family are useful for simple fabrication of high-resolution OASLMs depending on the desired wavelength.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (CRC Press, 1995), p. 47.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Perennes and W. A. Crossland, Opt. Eng. 36, 2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Collings, A. R. Pourzand, F. L. Vladimirov, N. I. Pletneva, and A. N. Chaika, Appl. Opt. 38, 6184 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Wang and G. Moddel, Appl. Phys. 78, 6923 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, Solid State Commun. 11, 1311 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.
  15. S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.
  16. F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.
  17. Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Wang and G. Moddel, Appl. Phys. 78, 6923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1972 (1)

K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, Solid State Commun. 11, 1311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, P. R.

P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Barbier and G. Moddel, Appl. Opt. 31, 3898 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camerone, C.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Chaika, A. N.

N. Collings, A. R. Pourzand, F. L. Vladimirov, N. I. Pletneva, and A. N. Chaika, Appl. Opt. 38, 6184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

Cohen, G. B.

Collings, N.

N. Collings, A. R. Pourzand, F. L. Vladimirov, N. I. Pletneva, and A. N. Chaika, Appl. Opt. 38, 6184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

Coomber, S.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Crossland, W. A.

F. Perennes and W. A. Crossland, Opt. Eng. 36, 2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.

Davidov, D.

Efron, U.

K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (CRC Press, 1995), p. 47.

Fitio, V. M.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Gamo, H.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gelbaor, M.

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gelbaor Kirzhner, M.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, J.

Hughes, J.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Kikuchi, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, Solid State Commun. 11, 1311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kostyukevych, S. A.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Kulynych, Y. P.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Kurioz, Yu.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maksymenko, O. P.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Marom, E.

Mias, S.

S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.

Moddel, G.

L. Wang and G. Moddel, Appl. Phys. 78, 6923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Barbier and G. Moddel, Appl. Opt. 31, 3898 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morichev, I. E.

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

Muravsky, L. I.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Namba, S.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Perennes, F.

F. Perennes and W. A. Crossland, Opt. Eng. 36, 2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pletneva, N. I.

N. Collings, A. R. Pourzand, F. L. Vladimirov, N. I. Pletneva, and A. N. Chaika, Appl. Opt. 38, 6184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

Pogan, I. Y.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Pogreb, R.

Pourzand, A. R.

Reznikov, Yu.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sayyah, K.

Segawa, Y.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sheerin, D.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Sheremet, N.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slinger, C.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Slyusarenko, K.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. G.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Stanley, M.

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

Suhara, T.

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, Solid State Commun. 11, 1311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vinokur, K.

Vladimirov, F. L.

N. Collings, A. R. Pourzand, F. L. Vladimirov, N. I. Pletneva, and A. N. Chaika, Appl. Opt. 38, 6184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

Voronyak, T. I.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

Wang, L.

L. Wang and G. Moddel, Appl. Phys. 78, 6923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Wang and G. Moddel, Appl. Phys. 78, 6923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

F. Perennes and W. A. Crossland, Opt. Eng. 36, 2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Barbier, L. Wang, and G. Moddel, Opt. Eng. 33, 1322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Y. Aoyagi, Y. Segawa, S. Namba, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and H. Gamo, Phys. Status Solidi A 67, 669 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet, and K. Slyusarenko, Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 2040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, Solid State Commun. 11, 1311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Coomber, C. Camerone, J. Hughes, D. Sheerin, C. Slinger, M. A. G. Smith, and M. Stanley, in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, 2001), pp. 9–19.

S. Mias, N. Collings, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, in Recent Research Developments in Optics (Research Signpost Kerela, 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 125–144.

F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, N. I. Pletneva, I. E. Morichev, and N. Collings, in Optics in Computing ‘98 (SPIE, 1998), pp. 432–435.

U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (CRC Press, 1995), p. 47.

L. I. Muravsky, Y. P. Kulynych, O. P. Maksymenko, T. I. Voronyak, I. Y. Pogan, F. L. Vladimirov, S. A. Kostyukevych, and V. M. Fitio, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 5.2 (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2002), pp. 222–230.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the LCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase retardation as a function of the intensity of the write light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Demonstration of the LCD as a color converter. (a) Imaging setup. (b) The red image obtained on the LCD when the OASLM was irradiated with blue light through a sinusoidal mask of variable frequencies, where a DC voltage of 16 V was applied. (c) Images of the transmitted red light when the OASLM was irradiated with blue light through masks of 16 and 18lp/mm, at 7.5 and 8 V applied voltages, respectively. (d) Equivalent circuit of the OASLM under DC voltage.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Current–voltage characteristics of 10 μm homogeneously aligned LC (E44) devices in darkness and under irradiation (a 50 W halogen lamp with an IR cut filter).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

DE measurement. (a) Setup and (b) results.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

VLC=Vex(2RPSRLC+1),V2PS=2Vex(2+RLCRPS).
f=12πDτ0,
1τ0=1τr+1Ttrans.

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