Abstract

We demonstrate an optical setup for characterization of a photochromic intraocular lens and present first measurement results of the kinetic properties and relative spectral transmittance of this photochromic lens. The lens showed a main absorption spectrum with a center wavelength of λc=405nm and a minimum relative transmission of 74% in the activated state. The coloring and bleaching times were within the manufacturer-provided specification of approximately 10 s for coloring and 30 s for bleaching.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Look and W. L. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 18, 595 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Ortica, Dyes Pigm. 92, 807 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Feczko and B. Voncina, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, 1771 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. “Aurium Three Piece—A New Photochromic Foldable Intraocular Lens,” Medennium Inc., 2014, http://www.medennium.com/AuriumThree.html .
  7. T. Eppig, A. Speck, M. Gillner, D. Nagengast, and A. Langenbucher, Appl. Opt. 51, 133 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).
  9. T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. W. P. Tan, Vis. Res. 34, 1453 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. “Aurium Directions for Use,” Medennium Inc., 2014, http://www.medennium.com/IFU/Aurium_Directions_For_Use.pdf .
  12. H. Yang and N. A. Afshari, Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25, 40 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

H. Yang and N. A. Afshari, Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25, 40 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

T. Feczko and B. Voncina, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, 1771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

T. Eppig, A. Speck, M. Gillner, D. Nagengast, and A. Langenbucher, Appl. Opt. 51, 133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Ortica, Dyes Pigm. 92, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

1996 (1)

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. W. P. Tan, Vis. Res. 34, 1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Abdel-Aziz, S.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Afshari, N. A.

H. Yang and N. A. Afshari, Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25, 40 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Akinay, A.

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ao, M.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Behrens-Baumann, W.

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

Chen, X.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crano, J. C.

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cutler Peck, C.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eppig, T.

Espandar, L.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feczko, T.

T. Feczko and B. Voncina, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, 1771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Flood, T.

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gillner, M.

Haugen, B.

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haymore, J.

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. B.

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hopp, B.

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

Hou, Z.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, B.

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. L.

Karakelle, M.

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, D.

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolozsvari, L.

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

Kumar, A.

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langenbucher, A.

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Eppig, A. Speck, M. Gillner, D. Nagengast, and A. Langenbucher, Appl. Opt. 51, 133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

Mamalis, N.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monson, B.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagengast, D.

Nogradi, A.

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

Ong, M. D.

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ortica, F.

F. Ortica, Dyes Pigm. 92, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reupsch, J.

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Romaniv, N.

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, A.

Steven, S.

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stringham, J.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. E. W. P.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. W. P. Tan, Vis. Res. 34, 1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. W. P. Tan, Vis. Res. 34, 1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, B.

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Viestenz, A.

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Voncina, B.

T. Feczko and B. Voncina, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, 1771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werner, L.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, C.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang and N. A. Afshari, Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25, 40 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zaugg, B.

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Yang and N. A. Afshari, Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25, 40 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Org. Chem. (1)

T. Feczko and B. Voncina, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, 1771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigm. (1)

F. Ortica, Dyes Pigm. 92, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165 (2002).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Akinay, M. D. Ong, M. Choi, and M. Karakelle, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 105001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (5)

L. Werner, S. Abdel-Aziz, C. Cutler Peck, B. Monson, L. Espandar, B. Zaugg, J. Stringham, C. Wilcox, and N. Mamalis, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 37, 378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, J. Wang, W. Fan, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 2080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Hoffmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, A. Langenbucher, J. Reupsch, and A. Viestenz, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 38, 85 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ao, X. Chen, C. Huang, X. Li, Z. Hou, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and W. Wang, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 36, 389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, N. Mamalis, N. Romaniv, J. Haymore, B. Haugen, B. Hunter, and S. Steven, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

J. C. Crano, T. Flood, D. Knowles, A. Kumar, and B. van Gemert, Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 1395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (1)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. W. P. Tan, Vis. Res. 34, 1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

“Aurium Directions for Use,” Medennium Inc., 2014, http://www.medennium.com/IFU/Aurium_Directions_For_Use.pdf .

“Aurium Three Piece—A New Photochromic Foldable Intraocular Lens,” Medennium Inc., 2014, http://www.medennium.com/AuriumThree.html .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the test setup. The light from the light source (LS) is collimated by a planoconvex lens (L1) and a shortpass and longpass filter (KG1, WG320), blocking out the UV-B and infrared radiation. A filter wheel (FW) is used to control illumination for activation (B270), deactivation (GG435), and the dark state. A beam expander (L2 and L3) and an aperture stop limit the beam to 4 mm diameter. A glass plate (BS) splits the beam into measurement and reference paths. In the measurement path, the beam passes a silica cuvette with the sample in a temperature-controlled BSS. Two lenses and cosine correctors (L4, L5 and CC1, CC2) collect the light for detection by the synchronized spectrometer channels (Spec1, Spec2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal kinetic properties of the two IOLs showing a fast coloring and bleaching as well as a stable activated and deactivated relative transmission over time. The graphs show the average relative transmission at the three temperatures: 15°C (blue/dotted), 25°C (green/dashed), and 35.7°C (red/solid). (a) 18 D sample and (b) 25.5 D sample. The symbols refer to t50a() and t50d(), as well as t90a() and t90d(Δ).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrally resolved average relative transmission of the two IOLs in the activated state at three different temperatures: 15°C (blue/dotted), 25°C (green/dashed), and 35.7°C (red/solid). (a) 18 D sample and (b) 25.5 D sample. The deactivated lens was defined as ideal, homogeneous 100% transmission.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristic Parameters of Photochromic Activity During Light Exposure (Activation) and UV Blocking (Deactivation) Measured at λ=405nm

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