Abstract

We report the observation of modulation instability (MI) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral region by pumping a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide optical microwire with a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator operating at 2.6 μm. It is further shown that this MI occurs in the normal dispersion regime through negative fourth-order dispersion and leads to far-detuned parametric frequency conversion at 2 and 3.5 μm, despite the presence of a strong absorption band around 2.8 μm. Stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equation simulations of mid-IR MI are in excellent agreement with experiments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2012 (5)

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Opt. Express 20, 9572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, U. Moller, P. M. Moselund, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 20, 22886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker and M. Rochette, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 960 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. Russell, Opt. Lett. 28, 2225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pitois and G. Millot, Opt. Commun. 226, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2013).

Ahmad, R.

Al-kadry, A.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Bang, O.

Ben Salem, A.

Bernier, M.

Beugnot, J. C.

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

Bramerie, L.

Brilland, L.

Caron, N.

Chartier, T.

Coen, S.

Dekker, S. A.

Dias, F.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

El Amraoui, M.

El-Amraoui, M.

Feng, X.

Fortin, V.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gay, M.

Genty, G.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godin, T.

Harvey, J. D.

Hasegawa, A.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herink, G.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hodelin, J.

Horak, P.

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jauregui, C.

Joly, N.

Judge, A. C.

Jung, Y.

Knight, J. C.

Koizumi, F.

Koukharenko, E.

Kudlinski, A.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, P. A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larger, L.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, C.

Laude, V.

Le, S. D.

Lenglé, K.

Lenz, G.

Leonhardt, R.

Li, E.

Limpert, J.

Lipson, M.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Mägi, E. C.

Maillotte, H.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Méchin, D.

Merolla, J. M.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Millot, G.

S. Pitois and G. Millot, Opt. Commun. 226, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moller, U.

Moselund, P. M.

Murugan, G. S.

Mussot, A.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. M.

Nodop, D.

Pitois, S.

S. Pitois and G. Millot, Opt. Commun. 226, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Rochette, M.

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schimpf, D.

Sessions, N. P.

Shaw, L. B.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silva, M. C.

Slusher, R. E.

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, S. T.

Stefani, A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

Tai, K.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, C. L.

Thual, M.

Tomita, A.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toupin, P.

Troles, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, A. C.

Vallée, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wetzel, B.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 21, 18452 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wong, G. K. L.

Xu, F.

Zghal, M.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

C. Baker and M. Rochette, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 960 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, Nat. Photonics 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Pitois and G. Millot, Opt. Commun. 226, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. OPO, optical parametric oscillator; ND, neutral density filter; Obj., ZnSe midIR objective lens. (b) Input facet of the hybrid microwire. (c) Schematic of the tapered microwire.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental observation of MI when pumping at λ=2620nm in the normal dispersion regime. Input peak powers estimated at (a) 200 mW, (b) 1 W, and (c) 10 W.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

GVD curves for selected microwire diameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated MI normalized gain as a function of pump wavelength. The dashed lines indicate the positions of the MI sidebands at the pump wavelength and the ZDW. The sideband positions seen in the experiment are also indicated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Top: Simulation results showing the mean spectrum at the microwire output (black) compared with the experiment (red). Individual realizations from the ensemble (500 spectra) are also shown (gray dots). Bottom: Spectral evolution from one simulation simulated along the microwire length (total length of 22 cm) showing the dynamics of normal dispersion MI.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K=β3Ω36±[(β2Ω22+β4Ω424)×(β2Ω22+β4Ω424+2γP)]1/2,
Ω=(12β2β4)1/2.
iA(z,t)z=β222At2+iβ363At3β4244At4γ|A|2A,

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