Abstract

A method for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde (CH2O) that discriminates against the interfering signal from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is presented. This technique uses an interference filter with 11 transmission bands that closely match the most prominent fluorescence features of CH2O upon excitation at 355 nm. The signal increases by a factor of 12 with the multi-band filter compared to a single-band filter. Slight angle-tuning of the filter shifts the transmission maxima to the minima in between the CH2O-LIF features. The pixel-by-pixel difference between the images collected at the two filter angles thus provides CH2O images free of PAH interference, providing the capability for selective single-pulse CH2O-LIF imaging in engine combustion even under fuel-rich conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach Science, 1996).
  2. K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Schulz and V. Sick, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75 (2005).
  4. C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).
  5. G. Bruneaux, Int. J. Engine Res. 9, 249 (2008).
  6. A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Lachaux and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2921 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. H. Paul and H. N. Naim, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, and D. R. Crosley, Appl. Opt. 39, 3712 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Harrington and K. C. Smyth, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.
  16. T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).
  17. R. Spence and W. Wild, J. Chem. Soc. 1, 338 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Semrock Inc., “Filter spectra at non-normal angles of incidence,” 2013, http://www.semrock.com/filter-spectra-at-non-normal-angles-of-incidence.aspx .
  19. K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

2013 (1)

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Bruneaux, Int. J. Engine Res. 9, 249 (2008).

2007 (1)

T. Lachaux and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz and V. Sick, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

2000 (3)

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, and D. R. Crosley, Appl. Opt. 39, 3712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. H. Paul and H. N. Naim, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. E. Harrington and K. C. Smyth, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

1935 (1)

R. Spence and W. Wild, J. Chem. Soc. 1, 338 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Axelsson, B.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Bai, X.

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Barlow, R. S.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, L.

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Bladh, H.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Böckle, S.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, C.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Bruneaux, G.

G. Bruneaux, Int. J. Engine Res. 9, 249 (2008).

Burkert, A.

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

Denbratt, I.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Donkerbroeck, A.

A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, T.

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach Science, 1996).

Eigenbrod, C.

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Genzale, C. L.

C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grebner, D.

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. E.

J. E. Harrington and K. C. Smyth, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

Jördens, C.

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

Kazenwadel, J.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.

Klinkov, K.

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

König, W. T. J.

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koopmans, L.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Kunzelmann, T.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lachaux, T.

T. Lachaux and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauerhaas, M.

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

Li, Z.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Luque, J.

Metz, T.

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

Müller, D.

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Dethlefs, K.

K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

Musculus, M. P.

C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lachaux and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naim, H. N.

P. H. Paul and H. N. Naim, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, J.

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

Ossler, F.

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

Paa, W.

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

P. H. Paul and H. N. Naim, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peléat, M.

K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

Reimert, M.

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reitz, R. D.

C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

C. Schulz and V. Sick, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75 (2005).

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

Shin, D.-I.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

C. Schulz and V. Sick, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75 (2005).

Smith, G. P.

Smyth, K. C.

J. E. Harrington and K. C. Smyth, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spence, R.

R. Spence and W. Wild, J. Chem. Soc. 1, 338 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Taran, J.-P.

K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

ter Meulen, J. J.

A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thering, H.

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

van Vliet, A. P.

A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wild, W.

R. Spence and W. Wild, J. Chem. Soc. 1, 338 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 70, 733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. (1)

K. Müller-Dethlefs, M. Peléat, and J.-P. Taran, Ber Bunsenges Phys. Chem. 85, 803 (1981).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Harrington and K. C. Smyth, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

A. Donkerbroeck, A. P. van Vliet, and J. J. ter Meulen, Combust. Flame 157, 155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuel (1)

A. Burkert, W. Paa, M. Reimert, K. Klinkov, and C. Eigenbrod, Fuel 111, 384 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Engine Res. (1)

G. Bruneaux, Int. J. Engine Res. 9, 249 (2008).

J. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. Spence and W. Wild, J. Chem. Soc. 1, 338 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (5)

A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, and W. T. J. König, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Lachaux and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Genzale, R. D. Reitz, and M. P. Musculus, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul and H. N. Naim, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

C. Schulz and V. Sick, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75 (2005).

Spectrochim. Acta A (2)

C. Brackmann, J. Nygren, X. Bai, Z. Li, H. Bladh, B. Axelsson, I. Denbratt, L. Koopmans, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 3347 (2003).

T. Metz, X. Bai, F. Ossler, and M. Aldén, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1043 (2004).

Other (3)

Semrock Inc., “Filter spectra at non-normal angles of incidence,” 2013, http://www.semrock.com/filter-spectra-at-non-normal-angles-of-incidence.aspx .

H. Thering, M. Lauerhaas, C. Jördens, L. Beckmann, T. Dreier, and C. Schulz, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Engine Combustion Processes, A. Leipertz, ed., Vol. 13.1 of BEV (Esytec, 2013), pp. 255.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach Science, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured spectrum of formaldehyde (dotted line) with the transmission of the single band filters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CH2O-LIF spectrum with the transmission bands of the 11-band filter at perpendicular light incidence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CH2O-LIF spectrum with the transmission bands of the 11-band filter at 15° tilt angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) On-band and (b) off-band images in a rich ethylene/air flame (ϕ=1.8) obtained by tilting the 11-band filter by 15° from its normal orientation. (c) Difference image between (a) and (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated and measured LIF intensities detected through the 11-band filter as a function of tilt angle. Solid and dashed lines are for ethylene/air flames for two equivalence ratios; dotted line: calculated values for LIF measurements in pure CH2O.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Remaining Signal Intensity for Optimized Tilt Angles (15°) for Premixed CH4 and C2H2/Air Flames and Various Equivalence Ratios

Equations (1)

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λ(θ)=λ(0)1(sin(θ)neff)2.

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