Abstract

We demonstrate an arrayed waveguide grating based on silicon nanowires with birefringence compensation for optical interconnects using coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). Angled star couplers are employed in combination with different diffraction orders for TM and TE polarizations. This device has a compact footprint of 0.36mm×0.17mm. Theoretical and experimental results show that the polarization-dependent wavelength shifts (PDλ) can be reduced from 380–420 to 0.5–3.5 nm, below 25% of the 3 dB bandwidth of channel response. The measured cross talk for TM polarization is better than 18dB, and that for TE is better than 14dB.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, and E. S. Koteles, Electron. Lett. 35, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Ziringibl, C. H. Joyner, and P. C. Chou, Electron. Lett. 31, 1662 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Adesida, I.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Amersfoort, M. R.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Lett. 38, 2961 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, B493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, P. C.

M. Ziringibl, C. H. Joyner, and P. C. Chou, Electron. Lett. 31, 1662 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, B493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-J.

X. Xia, J. Zou, T. Lang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang, J.-J. He, J.-G. Kuang, and S. He, Opt. Express 15, 15022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, and E. S. Koteles, Electron. Lett. 35, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang, J.-J. He, J.-G. Kuang, and S. He, Opt. Express 15, 15022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Ishida, K.

Joyner, C. H.

M. Ziringibl, C. H. Joyner, and P. C. Chou, Electron. Lett. 31, 1662 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koteles, E. S.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, and E. S. Koteles, Electron. Lett. 35, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koza, M. A.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, J.-G.

Lamontagne, B.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, and E. S. Koteles, Electron. Lett. 35, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

X. Xia, J. Zou, T. Lang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang, J.-J. He, J.-G. Kuang, and S. He, Opt. Express 15, 15022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, H. P.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, I.

Okamoto, K.

Pathak, S.

Rajhel, A.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Thourhout, D. V.

S. Pathak, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Lett. 38, 2961 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vanslembrouck, M.

Wang, L.

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X.

X. Xia, J. Zou, T. Lang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Youtsey, C.

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ziringibl, M.

M. Ziringibl, C. H. Joyner, and P. C. Chou, Electron. Lett. 31, 1662 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

X. Xia, J. Zou, T. Lang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

D. Dai, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Electron. Lett. 42, 400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoort, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, R. Bhat, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, Electron. Lett. 32, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziringibl, C. H. Joyner, and P. C. Chou, Electron. Lett. 31, 1662 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. He, B. Lamontagne, and E. S. Koteles, Electron. Lett. 35, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Xia, J. Zou, T. Lang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Zou, T. Lang, L. Wang, and J.-J. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the birefringence compensated AWG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated PDλ for the edge channels when the central channel is birefringence compensated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical microscope view of the fabricated AWG. (b) Expanded SEM images of the output waveguide. (c) Arrayed waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SEM images of the straight waveguide and (b) its sidewall.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured transmission spectra of the fabricated AWG for TM and TE polarizations. (b) PDλ as a function of wavelength.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Main Design Parameters of the AWG

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured AWG Characteristics

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ns(λ)dasinθ0+ns(λ)dasinθ+na(λ)ΔL=mλ,
2nse(λ0)ΔLs0+nae(λ0)ΔL=(m+i)λ0,
2nsm(λ0)ΔLs0+nam(λ0)ΔL=mλ0,
d(sinθ)dλ=2NsΔLs0+NaΔLλnsda,
PDλ=(sinθesinθ0)(sinθmsinθ0)sinθesinθ0·(λm_edgeλ0)=(12NsmΔLs0+NamΔL2NseΔLs0+NaeΔL·nsensm)·(λm_edgeλ0).

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