Abstract

So far, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) has been based on optical cavities with a high finesse F that, however, has been limited by mirror reflectivity and by cavity transmission considerations to a few times 10,000. Here, we demonstrate a compact near-infrared optical-feedback CEAS instrument for water vapor isotope ratio measurements, with F>140,000. We show that this very high finesse can be effectively exploited to improve the detection sensitivity to the full extent predicted by the increased effective path length to reach a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 5.7×1011cm1Hz1/2 for a full spectrum registration (including possible effects of interference fringes and fit model inadequacies).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.
  2. F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).
  8. C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Webster and A. Heymsfield, Science 302, 1742 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Q. Iannone, “Development of a near-infrared optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for atmospheric water vapor isotope ratio measurements,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Groningen, 2009).
  13. E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. To the best of our knowledge, the term NEAS was first used in conjunction with CRDS by [15]. Moyer et al. [13] provide a useful survey of this and other figures of merit used to specify long optical path length spectrometers.
  15. D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ye, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1305 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Werle, Appl. Phys. B 102, 313 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, Phys.-Usp. 9, 701 (1967).
  23. W. Dansgaard, Tellus 16, 436 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Barkan and B. Luz, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19, 3737 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Landsberg, “Development of an OFCEAS laser spectrometer for water vapor isotope measurements at low water concentration,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Grenoble and University of Groningen, 2014).
  26. L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, Opt. Express 11, 1566 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Werle, Appl. Phys. B 102, 313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Barkan and B. Luz, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19, 3737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, Phys.-Usp. 9, 701 (1967).

1964 (1)

W. Dansgaard, Tellus 16, 436 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aemisegger, F.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, N.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allen, N. T.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Bailey, A.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, E.

E. Barkan and B. Luz, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19, 3737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berkelhammer, M.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Bolot, M.

M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bony, S.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Breant, C.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Buenning, N.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chenevier, M.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clair, J. St.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dansgaard, W.

W. Dansgaard, Tellus 16, 436 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Demusz, J.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dhaniyala, S.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dyroff, C.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, P.

Engel, G.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frankenberg, C.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Funke, B.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Fütterer, D.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

Gianfrani, L.

Graf, P.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, M.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, S.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hanisco, T.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A.

C. R. Webster and A. Heymsfield, Science 302, 1742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, R. Q.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Iannone, “Development of a near-infrared optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for atmospheric water vapor isotope ratio measurements,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Groningen, 2009).

Jost, H. J.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kassi, S.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kerstel, E.

J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, Opt. Express 11, 1566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

Keutsch, F.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, M.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Knohl, A.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, J.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landsberg, J.

J. Landsberg, “Development of an OFCEAS laser spectrometer for water vapor isotope measurements at low water concentration,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Grenoble and University of Groningen, 2014).

Lapson, L.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Legras, B.

M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luz, B.

E. Barkan and B. Luz, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19, 3737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

Martin, T.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, H.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meillier, Y.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

Morville, J.

J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

Moyer, E.

M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noone, D.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nusbaumer, J.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, A.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfahl, S.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rautian, S. G.

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, Phys.-Usp. 9, 701 (1967).

Risi, C.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Rivero, M.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

Sayres, D.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sayres, D. S.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Silander, I.

Snels, M.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sobel’man, I. I.

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, Phys.-Usp. 9, 701 (1967).

Sodemann, H.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Sturm, C.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, P.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sykes, J.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tuozzolo, C.

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Burgel, M.

Vanderwende, B.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ventrillard, I.

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

Walker, K.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Wang, J.

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster and A. Heymsfield, Science 302, 1742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, Appl. Phys. B 102, 313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wernli, H.

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J.

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Worden, J.

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

Ye, J.

Zahn, A.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, Appl. Phys. B 102, 313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (2)

E. Kerstel, R. Q. Iannone, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B. 85, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B. 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Bolot, B. Legras, and E. Moyer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 7903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Noone, C. Risi, A. Bailey, M. Berkelhammer, D. Brown, N. Buenning, S. Gregory, J. Nusbaumer, D. Schneider, J. Sykes, B. Vanderwende, J. Wong, Y. Meillier, and D. Wolfe, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clim. Past (1)

C. Sturm, Q. Zhang, and D. Noone, Clim. Past 6, 115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Isot. Environ. Health Stud. (1)

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H. J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. Kerstel, Isot. Environ. Health Stud. 45, 303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

C. Risi, D. Noone, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, B. Funke, K. Walker, P. Bernath, M. Schneider, S. Bony, J. Lee, D. Brown, and C. Sturm, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D05304 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Phys.-Usp. (1)

S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel’man, Phys.-Usp. 9, 701 (1967).

Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1)

E. Barkan and B. Luz, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19, 3737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. S. Sayres, E. Moyer, T. Hanisco, J. St. Clair, F. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. Engel, J. Kroll, J. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 044102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. R. Webster and A. Heymsfield, Science 302, 1742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. (1)

J. Morville, D. Romanini, and E. Kerstel, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 179, 163 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

W. Dansgaard, Tellus 16, 436 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Landsberg, “Development of an OFCEAS laser spectrometer for water vapor isotope measurements at low water concentration,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Grenoble and University of Groningen, 2014).

To the best of our knowledge, the term NEAS was first used in conjunction with CRDS by [15]. Moyer et al. [13] provide a useful survey of this and other figures of merit used to specify long optical path length spectrometers.

D. Romanini, I. Ventrillard, G. Méjean, J. Morville, and E. Kerstel, in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014), Vol. 179, Chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

R. Q. Iannone, “Development of a near-infrared optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for atmospheric water vapor isotope ratio measurements,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Groningen, 2009).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Single spectrum recorded with HiFI at 500 ppmv H2O and a 2 Hz measurement rate. The RMS of the residuals is 8×1011cm1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time series of H2O and its isotope ratios (two top panels) and the corresponding Allan plots (bottom panel) for the selected data for H2O18, H2O17, and HDO, as well as the deuterium- and O17-excesses, as a function of averaging time T at a water mixing ratio of 20 ppmv.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Measurement Precision as a Function of the Water Mixing Ratio for Different Averaging Times

Equations (1)

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NEAS=δII1Leff1MR.

Metrics