Abstract

The potential of four-level optical phase quantizers toward coherent processing of advanced modulation formats, such as 16-QAM, is proposed and numerically demonstrated. The work shows that phase quantization achieved in fiber-based phase-sensitive amplifiers can demultiplex 16-QAM into two quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals, enabling subchannel switching. The numerical study highlights the impact of the quantizer transfer function on the performance of the demultiplexing process and numerically calculates the bit error rate for each QPSK tributary after the demultiplexing procedure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Wang and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, Y.

J. Y. Yang, Y. Akasaka, and M. Sekiya, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.7.

Andrekson, P. A.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, G. C.

Bogris, A.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Chiba, A.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Da Ros, F.

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), P2.11.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elschner, R.

T. Richter, T. Richter, R. Elschner, and C. Schubert, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.A.2.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fejer, M. M.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Fujiwara, M.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Gajda, A.

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), P2.11.

Gautier, P.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horikoshi, K.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Ichikawa, J.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Ishi, H.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Kanno, A.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Kawanishi, T.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Khaleghi, S.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Langrock, C.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Lundström, C.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Masuda, H.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Matres, J.

Matsui, M.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Mizoguchi, M.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Morohashi, I.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

Parmigiani, F.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Petermann, K.

J. Wang and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), P2.11.

Petropoulos, P.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Peucheret, C.

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), P2.11.

Phelan, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Richter, T.

T. Richter, T. Richter, R. Elschner, and C. Schubert, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.A.2.

T. Richter, T. Richter, R. Elschner, and C. Schubert, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.A.2.

Sakamaki, Y.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Sakamoto, T.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Sano, A.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Savory, S.

S. Savory, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2012), OTh3C.7.

Schubert, C.

T. Richter, T. Richter, R. Elschner, and C. Schubert, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.A.2.

Sekiya, M.

J. Y. Yang, Y. Akasaka, and M. Sekiya, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.7.

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Sudo, M.

I. Morohashi, M. Sudo, T. Sakamoto, A. Kanno, A. Chiba, J. Ichikawa, and T. Kawanishi, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2010), paper P3.14.

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2011), paper OMT4.

Tur, M.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Vukovic, D.

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2013), P2.11.

Wang, J.

J. Wang and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 3 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 4, 690 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Wu, X.

H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, X. Wu, S. Khaleghi, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012), paper CM2B.3.

Yamazaki, H.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishi, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2010), paper PDPB7.

Yang, J. Y.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual scheme of 16-QAM optical demultiplexing into two QPSK tributaries.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase quantizer based on idler-free nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier [9]. The final nondegenerate process takes place in two stages, providing the required phase quantization performance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transfer characteristics properties of the quantizer (one-stage, two-stage schemes), Pin=65mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Constellation diagrams of the 16-QAM signal and QPSK1 after the first and the second “regeneration” stage. Input signal OSNR=29.5dB (0.1 nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Constellation diagrams of the 16-QAM signal, the output QPSK1 and QPSK2 tributaries. Input signal OSNR=29.5dB (0.1 nm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BER performance of the 16-QAM signal and its demultiplexed QPSK tributaries. PrQ stands for the proposed quantizer and IdQ stands for the ideal quantizer.

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