Abstract

We report on what is, to our knowledge, the first experimental observation of spatial soliton interaction with charged conductive microelectrodes in nematic liquid crystals. We show that solitons can undergo voltage-controlled deflection and reflection with a nematicon steering larger than 100° over distances of a few micrometers. Using bias-defined perturbations, we observe reconfigurable soliton geometries with several reflections.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).
  2. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).
  3. G. Assanto, Nematicons: Spatial Optical Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2012).
  4. A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 1447 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 20, 24701 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Alberucci and G. Assanto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2314 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 35, 1692 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1432 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. A. Laudyn and M. A. Karpierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Barboza, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 36, 2725 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 20, 24701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 35, 1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2006

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Agrawal, G. P.

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Alberucci, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Barboza, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 36, 2725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci and G. Assanto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 20, 24701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Barboza, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 36, 2725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci and G. Assanto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, Nematicons: Spatial Optical Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2012).

Barboza, R.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Barboza, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 36, 2725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blach, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brzdakiewicz, K. A.

Buchnev, O.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fratalocchi, A.

Haelterman, M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izdebskaya, Y. V.

Kaczmarek, M.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M. A.

U. A. Laudyn and M. A. Karpierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

Kivshar, Y. S.

Krolikowski, W.

Laudyn, U. A.

U. A. Laudyn and M. A. Karpierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasquazi, A.

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piccardi, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebling, J.

Residori, S.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shvedov, V.

Tabiryan, N. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Warenghem, M.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Laudyn and M. A. Karpierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nat. Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

G. Assanto, Nematicons: Spatial Optical Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the NLC cell for soliton steering by the localized voltage-controlled surfaces. (a) and (b) Top and (c) perspective views of the cell with the molecular director n distribution for (a) V=0V (initial orientation) and (b) and (c) V0V. Red and blue colored cylinders represent positive and negative conductive electrodes, respectively, in (b) and (c). Ellipses represent the resulting molecular dipole distribution near the electrodes. The red arrows indicate the beam trajectory, while the blue arrows in (b) represent the electric field lines.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Deflection of the nematicon trajectory through the interaction with the electrically defined surfaces (dashed curves) for various applied voltages: 4, 16, 24, 26 V. The dashed straight lines indicate the unperturbed soliton trajectory for V=0V.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nematicon interaction with electrically defined curved interfaces (circles) for three different distances dn (n=1,2,3) at V=18V. (a) Nematicon approaching from below to the electrode, d160μm; (b) nematicon propagates between two conductive electrodes, d2150μm; (c) nematicon approaching from above, d360μm, where the repulsive steering and walk-off reinforce the beam deviation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Apparent angular deviation of nematicon α in the plane yz versus applied bias V for three different distances dn (n=1,2,3) defined in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)–(d) Voltage-controlled reflection of the nematicon by the localized electrically defined surface for the various applied voltages V. The dashed curved lines indicate metal-NLC interfaces. (e) Soliton trajectories for various V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Double refraction of a nematicon with two closely spaced voltage-controlled localized surfaces.

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