Abstract

The importance of terahertz (THz) wave techniques has been demonstrated in various fields, and the range of applications is now expanding rapidly. However, the practical implementation of THz science to solve the real-world problems is restricted due to the lack not only of convenient high power THz wave emitters and sensitive detectors but also of efficient quasi-optical active devices such as amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate the direct amplification of THz waves in room temperature using magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate (MgO:LiNbO3) crystals as the nonlinear gain medium. The input THz wave is injected as a seed beam along with the pump beam into the nonlinear crystal and it is amplified by the optical parametric process. We report gain in excess of 30 dB with an input THz pulse energy of less than 1 pJ. We believe that this demonstration will contribute to the convenience and further applicability of THz frequency techniques.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirori and K. Tanaka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8401110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Y. He, and H. Pask, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 49, 357 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashi, K. Nawata, H. Sakai, T. Taira, H. Minamide, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 20, 2881 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Hirori, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashi, T. Shibuya, H. Sakai, T. Taira, C. Otani, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, Appl. Opt. 48, 2899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Opt. 40, 1423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Avetisyan, Y.

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, B.

Beere, H. E.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

H. Hirori, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, G.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choutagunta, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demmerle, F.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S. S.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

He, Y.

A. Lee, Y. He, and H. Pask, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 49, 357 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

Hirori, H.

H. Hirori and K. Tanaka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8401110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirori, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

Imai, K.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Opt. 40, 1423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, Opt. Express 11, 2549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Opt. 40, 1423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

Jang, M.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jukam, N.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

Karino, K.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawagoe, H.

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashi, K. Nawata, H. Sakai, T. Taira, H. Minamide, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 20, 2881 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashi, T. Shibuya, H. Sakai, T. Taira, C. Otani, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, Appl. Opt. 48, 2899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, Opt. Express 11, 2549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Opt. 40, 1423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitamoto, A.

Kondo, T.

Kumagai, H.

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

A. Lee, Y. He, and H. Pask, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 49, 357 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madeo, J.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mauro, C.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

Murate, K.

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nashima, S.

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

Nelson, K. A.

Ogawa, Y.

Ogura, H.

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohira, T.

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

Oustinov, D.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H.

A. Lee, Y. He, and H. Pask, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 49, 357 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Opt. 40, 1423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Sirtori, C.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tadokoro, Y.

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Takeya, K.

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takida, Y.

Y. Takida, T. Ohira, Y. Tadokoro, H. Kumagai, and S. Nashima, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Hirori and K. Tanaka, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8401110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirori, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tignon, J.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, Nat. Photonics 3, 715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

C. Mauro, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. R.

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Tripathi, H. Ogura, H. Kawagoe, H. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Corros. Sci. 62, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, H.

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vijayraghavan, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vizbaras, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 39, R301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

White, W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, H. Uchida, K. Takeya, and K. Kawase, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 072703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Hirori, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Principle of THz wave generation and (b) THz wave amplification. Here, kseed, kpump, kTHz, and kidler represent the wave vectors of the seed, pump, THz, and idler beams respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the emission and amplification of THz radiation. The pump laser (λ=1064nm, energy=700μJ/pulse, pulse width=420ps, repetition rate=100Hz, M2=1.09) is amplified by two optical amplifiers in a double pass configuration. Each amplifier consists of 0.7-at. % Nd3+ doped YAG as a gain medium with diameter and length 3 mm and 70 mm respectively. The inset shows the phase matching condition for generation and amplification of THz radiation with a frequency of 2.01 THz. In this figure, polarizing beam splitter and continuous wave are abbreviated as PBS and CW, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Input/output characteristics of the THz amplification system. Here, the THz energy is varied using the combination of set of calibrated THz wave attenuators (TFA-4; CDP Corp) with transmittances of 1%, 3%, 10% and 30%. (b) Gain plotted as a function of input THz energy. The gain is calculated as G=10log10(Eout/Ein), where Eout and Ein are the THz input and output energy respectively.

Equations (1)

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kpump=kTHz+kidler,

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