Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a low-power 2×2 silicon electro-optic (EO) switch consisting of a double-ring assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer (DR-MZI). Active tuning elements based on p-i-n diodes and silicon resistive micro-heaters are embedded in the microrings for high-speed EO switching and low-loss thermo-optic (TO) tuning, respectively. The transmission spectrum shows the device can perform switching in a 60 GHz spectral window with a crosstalk less than 20dB. After phase error correction with 2.31 mW TO power, the EO switch power from cross to bar states is only 0.69 mW. The rise and fall times of the switch are 405 and 414 ps, respectively. The switch operation of the device is verified by high-throughput optical signal transmission up to 25 Gbps.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 17, 24020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Baks, C. W.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Barwicz, T.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Cardenas, J.

Chang, S.-J.

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. J.

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-k.

Chiba, T.

Cong, G. W.

Ding, J.

Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Griffith, A.

Igarashi, Y.

Ishikawa, H.

Ji, R.

Kawashima, H.

Khater, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kiewra, E.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Kuchta, D.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Kuwatsuka, H.

Lee, B. G.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Li, Z.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Lu, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Luo, X.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Masahara, M.

Matsukawa, T.

Morton, P. A.

Ni, C.-Y.

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, M.

Poitras, C. B.

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Reinholm, C.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Rimolo-Donadio, R.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Rylyakov, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Shakya, J.

Shank, S.

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Tadokoro, H.

Tian, Y.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 17, 24020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

Wang, H.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J.

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

R. Ji, J. Xu, and L. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 492 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yanagihara, M.

Yang, L.

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Wang, S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, and Y. J. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ji, J. Xu, and L. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 492 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, Proc. IEEE 97, 1216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. G. Lee, A. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. Kuchta, M. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. Shank, C. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of the 2×2 DR-MZI based EO switch. Insets show cross-sectional views of the p-i-n diode and the silicon resistive microheater. The input ports are labeled as 1 and 2 and the output ports are labeled as 3 and 4. (b) Phase responses of the two MRRs with one ring (R1) blue-shifted after tuning. λ1 and λ2 are the resonance wavelengths of R1 and R2, respectively. λp is the switch operation wavelength. (c) Transmission spectra of the 1–4 and 1–3 paths. Solid lines: before tuning; dotted lines: after tuning.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated device. (b) Zoom-in SEM image of the grating couplers. (c) Zoom-in SEM image of the MRRs. (d) Measured transmission spectra of the device without active tuning.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) Measured transmission spectra of the DR-MZI under various TO tuning powers of R2. (c) and (d) Measured transmission spectra upon tuning of the p-i-n diode in R1. The TO power on R2 is kept at 2.31 mW. (e) and (f) Measured transmission spectra of the 2–3 and 2–4 paths at the bar and cross states.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Eye diagrams of the back-to-back (BtB) transmission and the switch transmissions via 1–3 and 1–4 paths at the bar and cross states. The optical signal is a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) signal with a length of 2311.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-domain optical response of the DR-MZI switch. (a) Applied square-wave electrical driving signal. (b) Measured optical waveform. The dashed lines indicate the 10% and 90% power levels.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Transmission Performances of the DR-MZI Switch

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Table 2. Comparison of Silicon 2×2 Switches using FCD Effect

Equations (3)

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[EbarEcross]=[τiκiκτ][ET100ET2][τiκiκτ][Ein0],
Pbar=|Ebar/Ein|2=[T12+T222T1T2cos(φ1φ2)]/4
Pcross=|Ebar/Ein|2=[T12+T22+2T1T2cos(φ1φ2)]/4.

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