Abstract

We demonstrated a delay-line interferometer (DLI)-based, optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring scheme of 100Gbit/s polarization multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PM-QPSK) four-channel WDM at 50-GHz International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid with <0.5dB error for signals with up to 26 dB of actual OSNR. We also demonstrated data format transparency and baud rate tunability of the OSNR monitor by measuring the OSNR for a 200Gbit/s PM-16-QAM (25-Gbaud) signal and a 200Gbit/s PM-QPSK (50-Gbaud) signal. We also explored and studied different monitor parameters, including the shape of the filter spectrum, the bandwidth of the filter, DLI delay, and DLI phase-detuning to determine the design guidelines for a desired level of accuracy for the OSNR monitor in an optical network.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, J.-Y. Yang, A. S. Garg, M. S. Wang, M. R. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 19, 14871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Bach, R.

Barry, L. P.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Bergman, K.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bradley, A. L.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Brodsky, M.

Buhl, L. L.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cadena, G.

Chan, C.-K.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M.-H.

Chitgarha, M. R.

C. P. Lai, J.-Y. Yang, A. S. Garg, M. S. Wang, M. R. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 19, 14871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Choi, H. Y.

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Chung, Y. C.

Daab, W.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Donegan, J. F.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Eggleton, B. J.

Einstein, D.

Evans, J. S.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

Flood, E.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Fu, A.

Garg, A. S.

Guo, W. H.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Kang, I.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Skold, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThH3.

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Khaleghi, S.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Kilper, D. C.

Lai, C. P.

Landolsi, T.

Lee, J. H.

Lei, G. K. P.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lizé, Y. K.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Lu, G.-W.

Lynch, M.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Mohajerin-Ariaei, A.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Moller, L.

Nelson, L. E.

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Oh, J. M.

Olsson, B.-E.

M. Skold, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThH3.

Ostar, L.

Pelusi, M. D.

Preiss, M.

Reid, D.

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 14, 58 (2010).

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

Rogawski, D.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Ryf, R.

Séguin, F.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Shi, Y.

Shieh, W.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. K.

Shu, C.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Skold, M.

M. Skold, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThH3.

Sunnerud, H.

M. Skold, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThH3.

Touch, J. D.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Tsang, H. K.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Vusirikala, V.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Wang, L.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. S.

Willner, A. E.

C. P. Lai, J.-Y. Yang, A. S. Garg, M. S. Wang, M. R. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 19, 14871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Wu, T.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Wu, X.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Xie, C.

Xu, K.

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

Yang, J. Y.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

Yang, J.-Y.

Yao, X. S.

Yi, X.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

Ziyadi, M.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, G. K. P. Lei, Y. M. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 968 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.6.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, W. Daab, M. Ziyadi, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, J. D. Touch, V. Vusirikala, W. Zhao, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2013), paper OTh3B.

M. Skold, B.-E. Olsson, H. Sunnerud, and M. Karlsson, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThH3.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Y. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2007), paper OThN2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual block diagram of the OSNR monitor for WDM channels using a delay-line interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for OSNR monitoring of pol-muxed WDM channels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated OSNR measurement error versus actual OSNR for single channel 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK using Gaussian, raised-cosine, and Lorentzian filters. (b) Simulated OSNR measurement error versus actual OSNR for WDM 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK using Gaussian, raised-cosine, and Lorentzian filters. (c) Simulated OSNR measurement error versus filter bandwidth for WDM 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK using Gaussian, raised-cosine, and Lorentzian filters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulated measurement error versus DLI delay for low (10 dB), medium (15 dB), and high (20 dB) OSNR, 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK. (b) Measurement error versus DLI phase, simulation, and experimental results for low (10 dB), medium (15 dB), and high (20 dB) OSNR, 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK. (c) Combination of phase-instability and measurement error versus DLI delay, simulation and experimental results for low, medium, and high OSNR, 100Gbit/s PM-QPSK.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measurement error versus actual OSNR for different modulation formats at the baud rate of 25-Gbaud. (b) Measurement error versus actual OSNR for different baud rates and the same modulation format PM-QPSK.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured versus actual OSNR for four 25-Gbaud PM-QPSK WDM channels and average error. (b) Measurement error versus actual OSNR for channel 2 (1550.12 nm) when other adjacent channels are either at high-or low-OSNR.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PConst=αα+1PSig+ββ+1PNoise
PDest=1α+1PSig+1β+1PNoise
PSigPNoise=α+1β+1·PConstβPDestαPDestPConst.
OSNR(dB)10log10(PSigPNoise·NEB0.1nm),

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