Abstract

Visible light Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) microscopy is a well established method for imaging weakly absorbing samples. The method is also used with hard x-ray photon energies for structural evaluation of material science and biological applications. However, the method suffers from artifacts that are inherent for the Zernike image formation. In this Letter, we investigate their origin and experimentally show how to suppress them in x-ray full-field ZPC microscopy based on diffractive x-ray optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Zernike and Z. F. Techn, Z. Techn. Physik 16, 454 (1935).
  2. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), p. 472.
  3. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Youn and S.-W. Jung, J. Microsc. 223, 53 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Otaki, Opt. Rev. 7, 119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Gao, B. Yao, I. Harder, N. Lindlein, and F. J. Torcal-Milla, Opt. Lett. 36, 4305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Charalambous, B. Kaulich, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Lett. 31, 1465 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ch. Morawe, J.-P. Guigay, V. Mocella, and C. Ferrero, Opt. Express 16, 16138 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Marone and M. Stampanoni, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 1029 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Marone and M. Stampanoni, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 1029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Otaki, Opt. Rev. 7, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

F. Zernike and Z. F. Techn, Z. Techn. Physik 16, 454 (1935).

Blanke, A.

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), p. 472.

Charalambous, P.

Cui, H.

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duewer, F.

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, C.

Feser, M.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, P.

Gorelick, S.

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guigay, J.-P.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guzenko, V.

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hambach, D.

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. M.

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Harder, I.

Heim, S.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S.

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-W.

H. S. Youn and S.-W. Jung, J. Microsc. 223, 53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaulich, B.

Kim, H.-T.

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lindblom, M.

Lindlein, N.

Ludwig, W.

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marone, F.

F. Marone and M. Stampanoni, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 1029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M. A.

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mocella, V.

Mokso, R.

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morawe, Ch.

Neuhäusler, U.

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Otaki, T.

T. Otaki, Opt. Rev. 7, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quaroni, L.

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni, M.

F. Marone and M. Stampanoni, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 1029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Techn, Z. F.

F. Zernike and Z. F. Techn, Z. Techn. Physik 16, 454 (1935).

Thieme, J.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torcal-Milla, F. J.

Trtik, P.

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

Wang, S.

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), p. 472.

Yao, B.

Youn, H. S.

H. S. Youn and S.-W. Jung, J. Microsc. 223, 53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike and Z. F. Techn, Z. Techn. Physik 16, 454 (1935).

Zschech, E.

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

H. S. Youn and S.-W. Jung, J. Microsc. 223, 53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

P. Guttmann, X. Zeng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012064 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, A79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

R. Mokso, L. Quaroni, F. Marone, S. Irvine, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Blanke, and M. Stampanoni, J. Struct. Biol. 177, 233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

F. Marone and M. Stampanoni, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 1029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Gorelick, V. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, Nanotechnology 21, 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Otaki, Opt. Rev. 7, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Stampanoni, R. Mokso, F. Marone, J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, P. Trtik, K. Jefimovs, and C. David, Phys. Rev. B 81, 140105(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. Lim, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Huang, S. M. Han, and H.-T. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, and B. Niemann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, and W. Yun, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Techn. Physik (1)

F. Zernike and Z. F. Techn, Z. Techn. Physik 16, 454 (1935).

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), p. 472.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the setup. A beam shaper (BS) illuminates the sample from discrete angles that overlap in the sample plane, forming a flat top illumination in the sample plane. One of the individual gratings is outlined in red in the BS. Light paths from only two gratings in the BS are shown for simplicity. A zone plate focuses the nondiffracted plane waves to the phase shifter and projects a magnified image of the sample to the detector plane. A phase plate containing concentric rings is used to shift the phase of the zeroth order light by π/2. Central stop, order sorting aperture, and the detector are neglected from the schematic for brevity. The arrangement of these components is similar to [5].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron microscopy images of the (a) BS and (b) phase rings. Inset in (a) shows the outermost zones of the BS. Image (c) illustrates the diffracted light from a circular object in the BFP of the objective lens. Scale bars in (a) and (b) are 50 and 10 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ZPC images of the test sample using different LWs of the phase shifter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross sections of the phase contrast images in Fig. 3 along the red lines. The cross sections for each LW are shifted vertically for better comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tomographic slices of three carbon fibers with 7 μm diameter acquired with the square BS configuration (left), and with the optimized phase rings in the circular geometry (right).

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