Abstract

We demonstrate a remote microwave/radio frequency (RF) transfer technique based on the stabilization of a fiber link using a fiber-loop optical-microwave phase detector (FLOM-PD). This method compensates for the excess phase fluctuations introduced in fiber transfer by direct phase comparison between the optical pulse train reflected from the remote site and the local microwave/RF signal using the FLOM-PD. This enables sub-fs resolution and long-term stable link stabilization while having a wide timing detection range and less of a demand in fiber dispersion compensation. The demonstrated fractional frequency instability between 2.856 GHz RF oscillators separated by a 2.3 km fiber link is 7.6×1018 and 6.5×1019 at 1000 and 82,500 s averaging times, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

2010

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alatawi, A.

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bousonville, M.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Brown, C. T.

Byrd, J. M.

Callahan, P. T.

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML1.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuS1.

Coddington, I.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J.

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML1.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuS1.

Czwalinna, M. K.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Doolittle, L.

Du, P.

Duan, L.

Felber, M.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Fini, J. M.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

Giorgetta, F. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gollapalli, R. P.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Heuer, M.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, D.

Hrovatin, R.

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

Huang, G.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, S. G.

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5500906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Jung and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 37, 2958 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, M. Xin, L. Grüner-Nielsen, E. M. Monberg, M. Yan, J. M. Fini, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Express 21, 19982 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML1.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuS1.

Kim, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5500906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Jung and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 37, 2958 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML1.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuS1.

Kozak, T.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Kuhl, A.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Lamb, T.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Lea, S. N.

Lemut, P.

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

Lessing, M.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Monberg, E. M.

Muller, J.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Newbury, N. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ning, B.

Orel, P.

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

Peier, P.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Peng, M. Y.

Petropoulos, P.

Predki, P.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Richardson, D. J.

Ruzin, S.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, H.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Schulz, S.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Shin, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5500906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, L. C.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

Staffen, B.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Staples, J. W.

Swann, W. C.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sydlo, C.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Valente, S.

Wilcox, R.

Xin, M.

Yan, M.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zorzut, S.

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

Zummack, F.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Appl. Phys. B

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5500906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Orel, S. Zorzut, P. Lemut, R. Hrovatin, and S. G. Hunziker, in Proceedings of the North American Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2013), paper THPMA04.

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML1.

S. Schulz, M. Bousonville, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M. Heuer, T. Lamb, J. Muller, P. Peier, S. Ruzin, H. Schlarb, B. Staffen, C. Sydlo, F. Zummack, T. Kozak, P. Predki, and A. Kuhl, in Proceedings of IBIC (2013), paper WEPC32.

Corning Inc., “Corning SMF-28 optical fiber product information,” Document Number PI1036 (2002).

J. A. Cox, J. Kim, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of CLEO (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuS1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the FLOM-PD-stabilized fiber link experiment. For the fiber link, (i) a 2.3 km long dispersion-compensated fiber link (installed in an accelerator building), (ii) a 1 km long SMF-28 fiber link (without dispersion compensating fiber), and (iii) an 8 m long SMF-28 fiber link are used. Note that a 2.3 nm bandpass filter (BPF) is used for (ii) only.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase noise data. (a) Residual phase noise between the 2.856 GHz oscillators when a 2.3 km link is used. (b) Residual phase noise with an 8 m link. (c) Phase noise of the free-running VCO. (d) Background noise of the out-of-loop RF phase detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase drift measurement results. (a) A 2.3 km dispersion-compensated fiber link (without BPF). (b) A 1 km fiber link without DCF (with BPF). (c) An 8 m fiber link (without BPF).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fractional frequency instability between local and remote 2.856 GHz microwave oscillators in terms of overlapping Allan deviation. (a) Dispersion-compensated 2.3 km fiber. (b) 1 km fiber without dispersion compensation. (c) 8 m long fiber.

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