Abstract

We present a study of an actively stabilized optically pumped semiconductor laser operating single frequency at a wavelength of 1015 nm. In free running operation, the laser exhibits a single frequency output power of 15 W with a linewidth of 995 kHz for a sampling time of 1 s. The intensity and the frequency of the laser were independently stabilized to reach a laser linewidth of only 4 kHz for the same sampling time. To identify and reduce the different sources of noise, the relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectral density are investigated under various conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, Opt. Lett. 36, 319 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Kaneda, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stoltz, Opt. Lett. 34, 3511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Paul, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Young, S. W. Koch, and J. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 38, 3654 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
  7. B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Laurain, M. Myara, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Opt. Express 18, 14627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Reichling and H. Grönbeck, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer, 1988).

2014 (1)

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Paul, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Young, S. W. Koch, and J. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 38, 3654 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Reichling and H. Grönbeck, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

Bossert, D.

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S.

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, L.

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dineen, C.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Fallahi, M.

Gallant, D.

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, M. Myara, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Opt. Express 18, 14627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genty, F.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grönbeck, H.

M. Reichling and H. Grönbeck, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaneda, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stoltz, Opt. Lett. 34, 3511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinen, B.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Kaneda, Y.

Kaspar, S.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, Opt. Lett. 36, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Koch, S. W.

Kohler, K.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

Kunert, B.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Y. Kaneda, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stoltz, Opt. Lett. 34, 3511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurain, A.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Paul, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Young, S. W. Koch, and J. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 38, 3654 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, M. Myara, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Opt. Express 18, 14627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manz, C.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, Opt. Lett. 36, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mart, C.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Michon, A.

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Paul, M. Scheller, A. Laurain, A. Young, S. W. Koch, and J. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 38, 3654 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Moser, R.

Myara, M.

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, M. Myara, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Opt. Express 18, 14627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouvrard, A.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. R.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer, 1988).

Rattunde, M.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, Opt. Lett. 36, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling and H. Grönbeck, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosener, B.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rösener, B.

Sagnes, I.

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, M. Myara, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Opt. Express 18, 14627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

Sellahi, M.

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sparenberg, M.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Stohs, J.

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, W.

Stolz, W.

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Topper, T.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Töpper, T.

Wagner, J.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, Opt. Lett. 36, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-L.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Weber, A.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, A.

Electron. Lett (1)

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Electron. Lett 48, 516 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, B. Rosener, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Stohs, D. Bossert, D. Gallant, and S. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Laurain, C. Mart, J. Hader, J. Moloney, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 131 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Laurain, L. Cerutti, M. Myara, and A. Garnache, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 246 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ouvrard, A. Garnache, L. Cerutti, F. Genty, and D. Romanini, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Reichling and H. Grönbeck, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. Koch, J. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Myara, M. Sellahi, A. Laurain, A. Michon, I. Sagnes, and A. Garnache, Proc. SPIE 8606, 86060Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup of the stabilized single frequency OPSL device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output power characteristic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Laser spectrum recorded at maximum power. (b) Transmission through a 55 MHz FWHM confocal scanning FPI (free spectral range of 1.5 GHz).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RIN of the VECSEL at maximum power under various conditions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical noise of our high-power free running VECSEL.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency noise spectral density of a free running VECSEL compared to the intensity and frequency stabilized VECSEL. A simulation of the pump-induced thermal fluctuations is also plotted.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Laser power spectrum density computed from the frequency noise spectrum density of (a) a free running and (b) intensity and frequency stabilized VECSEL.

Equations (1)

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Sth(ω)=Pp2Rth2RINp(ω)×(cλnTLμcLc)2×Θ(ω)2,

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