Abstract

A novel polarization-modulator-based complementary frequency shifter (PCFS) has been proposed and then used to implement the generation of a frequency-locked multicarrier with single- and dual-recirculating frequency shifting loops, respectively. The transfer functions and output properties of PCFS and PCFS-based multicarrier generator have been studied theoretically. Based on our simulation results through VPItransmissionMaker software, 100 stable carriers have been obtained with acceptable flatness while no DC bias control is required. The results show that the proposed PCFS has the potential to become a commercial product and then used in various scenarios.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

2012 (4)

J. Zhang, N. Chi, Y. Shao, L. Tao, J. Zhu, and Y. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, Z. Dong, J. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Chien, and N. Chi, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Healy, F. C. Garcia-Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, Opt. Express 15, 2981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, M.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhooplapur, S.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

Chandrasekhar, S.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, S.

Chi, N.

Chien, H.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.

Ellis, A. D.

Ferdous, F.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Gunning, F. C.

Goh, T.

Guo, R.

Hamidi, E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

Healy, T.

Hoghooghi, N.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Mino, S.

Mori, A.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozdur, I.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saida, T.

Salza, M.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

Shieh, W.

Supradeepa, V. R.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Tao, L.

Tian, F.

Wang, Y.

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, L.

Xiao, X.

Yamazaki, H.

Yang, Q.

Yu, J.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

Zhu, J.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (3)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

VPIsystems, “VPltransmissionMaker.”

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the novel polarization-modulator-based CFS (PCFS). RF, radio frequency; PMOC, polarization-maintained optical coupler; PC, polarization controller; Pol, polarizer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration of MCG based on PCFS. (a) Single-loop configuration and (b) dual-loop configuration. TLS, tunable laser source; OA, optical amplifier; OBF, optical band-pass filter; WSS, wavelength-selective-switch; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Crosstalk coefficient |b| versus Vpp.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output spectra of the PCFS at output port 1 and port 2, respectively. The corresponding angles of (a), (b), and (d) are α1=0°, α2=90°, while that of (c) is α1=0°, α2=60°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fifty-carrier output spectra of PCMCG with single-loop configuration for frequency (a) up-shifting and (b) down-shifting.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

One-hundred-carrier output spectra of PCMCG with dual-loop configuration (a) without and (b) with waveshaping device.

Equations (8)

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Hin=[cosα1sinα1],HDPol=[cosα2sinα20000cosα2sinα2],HPMOC=[10j0010jj0100j01],HPolM=[H1x00H1yH2x00H2y],H1x=H1y*ejϕ=exp[jπVπf1(t)]=exp[jπVppVπcos(ωmt)],H2x=H2y*ejϕ=exp[jπVπf2(t)]=exp[jπVppVπsin(ωmt)],
TPCFS=HDPolHPMOCHPolMHin=[To1To2],To1=C1(H1x+jH2x)+C2(H1y+jH2y)=[C1exp(jδmcos(ωmt))+C2exp(jδmcos(ωmt))]+j[C1exp(jδmsin(ωmt))+C2exp(jδmsin(ωmt))],To2=C1(jH1x+H2x)+C2(jH1y+H2y)=j[C1exp(jδmcos(ωmt))+C2exp(jδmcos(ωmt))]+[C1exp(jδmsin(ωmt))+C2exp(jδmsin(ωmt))],C1=cosα1cosα2,C2=sinα1sinα2ejϕ,
C1+C2=cosα1cosα2+sinα1sinα2ejϕ=0.
α1α2=±π2,ϕ=0.
TPCFS=|C1/2|[sin(δmcos(ωmt))+jsin(δmsin(ωmt))jsin(δmcos(ωmt))+sin(δmsin(ωmt))].
TPCMCG=[T1T2][g1J1(δm)[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕ)RT1jg2J1(δm)[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕ)RT2][[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕ)RT1j[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕ)RT2],
Est(t)=Ein(t)+Ein(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRT1)desired signals in loop1+Ein(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRT2)desired signals in loop2+Ein(t)n=1NCn1exp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRT1)crosstalk components in loop1+Ein(t)n=1NCn2exp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRT2)crosstalk components in loop2,
Cn1,2={nbexp(j4ϕRT1,2),n<(N3)(N3)bexp(j4ϕRT1,2),n(N3).

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