Abstract

Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera’s spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3,971,065 (July 20, 1976).
  2. J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Fredembach and S. Susstrunk, Proceedings of IS&T/SID 16th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Image Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 176–182.
  5. Y. Murakami, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Express 20, 7173 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).
  7. K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, Opt. Express 18, 14330 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. F. Cull, K. Choi, D. J. Brady, and T. Oliver, Appl. Opt. 49, B59 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, and A. R. Harvey, Opt. Express 18, 5602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).
  16. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Moxtek Inc. Data Sheet, OPT-DATA-1005, Rev D.
  18. M. Kulkarni and V. Gruev, Opt. Express 20, 22997 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principals of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).
  21. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
  22. Measured using a spectrometer, a 1 cm cuvette, and the expression, Δnc=(λ/πL)sin−1(T), where T is the transmission coefficient.
  23. Roscolux polycarbonate filters, Italian Blue R370, Sunset Red, Apricot R317, Rosco.
  24. M. Zecchino, Nat. Photonics 2, 664 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water” (1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .
  27. E. Schonbrun, G. Di Caprio, and D. Schaak, Opt. Express 21, 8793 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. F. Kelleher, J. Clin. Monit. 5, 37 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2013

B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, G. Di Caprio, and D. Schaak, Opt. Express 21, 8793 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, R. T. Kester, N. Hagen, and T. S. Tkaczyk, Opt. Express 18, 14330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Cull, K. Choi, D. J. Brady, and T. Oliver, Appl. Opt. 49, B59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, and A. R. Harvey, Opt. Express 18, 5602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Zecchino, Nat. Photonics 2, 664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. F. Kelleher, J. Clin. Monit. 5, 37 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, N.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, B. E.

B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3,971,065 (July 20, 1976).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principals of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Brady, D. J.

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

Crozier, K. B.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cull, C. F.

Dan, Y.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M. R.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dewhirst, M. W.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Caprio, G.

Diest, K.

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, O.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichenholtz, J. M.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher-Holmes, D. W.

Ford, B. K.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fredembach, C.

C. Fredembach and S. Susstrunk, Proceedings of IS&T/SID 16th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Image Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 176–182.

Gao, L.

Geelen, B.

B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, A.

Gruev, V.

Guo, L. J.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Hagen, N.

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. R.

Hiwada, K.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Juang, Y.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelleher, J. F.

J. F. Kelleher, J. Clin. Monit. 5, 37 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kester, R. T.

Kulkarni, M.

Lambrechts, A.

B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Langfelder, G.

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindsley, E.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Lynch, R. M.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, A.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Maki, A.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Moeller, B. J.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Murhpy, S. M.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

Oliver, T.

Parulski, K.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raskar, R.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Sajadi, B.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Schaak, D.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, G. Di Caprio, and D. Schaak, Opt. Express 21, 8793 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sorg, B. S.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spain, M.

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spano, S.

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spaulding, K.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Susstrunk, S.

C. Fredembach and S. Susstrunk, Proceedings of IS&T/SID 16th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Image Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 176–182.

Tack, N.

B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Volin, C. E.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wober, M.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principals of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wu, Y. K.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Xu, T.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Yamaguchi, M.

Zaraga, F.

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zecchino, M.

M. Zecchino, Nat. Photonics 2, 664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graph.

B. Sajadi, A. Majumder, K. Hiwada, A. Maki, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 65 (2011).

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

B. K. Ford, C. E. Volin, S. M. Murhpy, R. M. Lynch, and M. R. Descour, Biophys. J. 80, 986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

J. Adams, K. Parulski, and K. Spaulding, IEEE Micro 18, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. S. Sorg, B. J. Moeller, O. Donovan, Y. Cao, and M. W. Dewhirst, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Monit.

J. F. Kelleher, J. Clin. Monit. 5, 37 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 12, 1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Diest, J. A. Dionne, M. Spain, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 2579 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).

Nat. Photonics

M. Zecchino, Nat. Photonics 2, 664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

J. M. Eichenholtz, N. Barnett, Y. Juang, D. Fish, S. Spano, E. Lindsley, and D. Farkas, Proc. SPIE 7568, 75681L (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Geelen, N. Tack, and A. Lambrechts, Proc. SPIE 8613, 861314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Fredembach and S. Susstrunk, Proceedings of IS&T/SID 16th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Image Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 176–182.

B. E. Bayer, “Color imaging array,” U.S. patent3,971,065 (July 20, 1976).

Moxtek Inc. Data Sheet, OPT-DATA-1005, Rev D.

S. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water” (1998), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principals of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Measured using a spectrometer, a 1 cm cuvette, and the expression, Δnc=(λ/πL)sin−1(T), where T is the transmission coefficient.

Roscolux polycarbonate filters, Italian Blue R370, Sunset Red, Apricot R317, Rosco.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarization encoded color. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a single 7.4 μm micropolarizer pixel consisting of a wire grid polarizer. Scale bar is 2 μm. (b) A 4×4 array of micropolarizers is transformed into a 4×4 array of color filters by the chiral dispersive element. (c) Poincaré sphere representation of linear and circular birefringence. (d) The chiral dispersive element transforms broadband linear polarized light into spectrally rotated linearly polarized light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reconfigurable CFAs. (a) A CFA that spans the visible frequency region is implemented using a 10 cm chiral disperser. (b) and (c) CFAs with higher spectral resolution are implemented using a 30 cm chiral disperser. The top row shows images captured by a traditional color camera of the implemented CFAs. The bottom row shows transmission spectra, normalized for polarized illumination, of the chiral disperser through uniform polarizers at four output angles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multispectral photography. (a) The PEC camera with a 10 cm chiral disperser. (b) Image of a Munsell ColorChecker chart using red, green, and blue LEDs for illumination. (c) A U.S. $5 bill imaged using red, green, and infrared LEDs. The top shows the red and green image and the bottom shows the infrared image. (d) and (e) Outdoor photography using daylight as illumination. Images display red, green, and blue, where the red channel also contains infrared energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Hemoglobin multispectral imaging. (a) The base 10 decay length due to absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin having a molar concentration of 2.3 mM. The vertical dashed lines represent the different wavelengths captured by the PEC camera in order to quantify hemoglobin on different length scales. (b) Red blood cells traveling through a microfluidic channel illuminated using LEDs with wavelengths of 420, 455, and 617 nm. (c) Transmitted light images through a thumb using LEDs with wavelengths of 660 and 850 nm and photoplethysmograph retrieved from the video signal.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θrot=πΔnc(λ)L/λ.
T(θi,λ)=cos2(θout(θin+θrot)),
[Mi,j]=[(cos(πd(ji)))2],
[M]=[10.500.50.510.5000.510.50.500.51].

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