Abstract

We propose a circulator consisting of a ring resonator coupled to three waveguides with Bragg reflectors at one end of each waveguide. A magneto-optically active material placed inside the ring resonator causes the two counter-propagating modes to split in resonance frequency, which can be exploited for perfect circulation by properly adjusting the coupling between the three waveguides and the ring. Such a device features a transmission spectrum that is similar to three-port photonic crystal circulators but is much simpler to build as it only contains elements that have already been experimentally realized.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
  2. S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 38, 965 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 721 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Kono, K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, Opt. Express 15, 7737 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 21, 5041 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Wang and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 1989 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Wang and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. B 81, 369 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).
  10. M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 11740 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
  12. D. Jalas, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of optical circulators based on interference ring resonator modes.”
  13. H. Dötsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Krause, J. Hampe, and M. Eich, Opt. Lett. 35, 3438 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Krause, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 691 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 38, 965 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 21, 5041 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

2011 (3)

M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 11740 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

M. Krause, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, W. van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 38, 965 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bahlmann, N.

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Bowers, J. E.

Dagens, B.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Pasquale, F.

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Doerr, C. R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Dötsch, H.

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Krause, J. Hampe, and M. Eich, Opt. Lett. 35, 3438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of optical circulators based on interference ring resonator modes.”

Fan, S.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Z. Wang and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 1989 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. B 81, 369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Gerhardt, R.

Ghosh, S.

Gralak, B.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guenneau, S.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

Hammer, M.

Hampe, J.

Hertel, P.

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Krause, J. Hampe, and M. Eich, Opt. Lett. 35, 3438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of optical circulators based on interference ring resonator modes.”

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kakihara, K.

Keyvaninia, S.

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kono, N.

Koshiba, M.

Krause, M.

Kromer, H.

Magdenko, L.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Mitsuya, K.

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Krause, J. Hampe, and M. Eich, Opt. Lett. 35, 3438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of optical circulators based on interference ring resonator modes.”

Pintus, P.

Popkov, A. F.

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Roelkens, G.

Romero-Vivas, J.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Saitoh, K.

Shoji, Y.

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smigaj, W.

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.-C.

van Roy, W.

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

W. Smigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, Opt. Lett. 35, 568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. B 81, 369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 1989 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilkens, L.

Yu, Z.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Zhuromskyy, O.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Wang and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. B 81, 369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).

Nature (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

W. Śmigaj, L. Magdenko, J. Romero-Vivas, S. Guenneau, B. Dagens, B. Gralak, and M. Vanwolleghem, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 10, 83 (2012).

Other (1)

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of optical circulators based on interference ring resonator modes.”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principal circulator layout: The light is coupled into ports 1, 2, and 3 and excites a cw and ccw traveling wave in the ring resonator. The cw is excited by reflecting the input waves with a Bragg reflector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Five different optical paths are shown that contribute to the transmission from port 1 to port 2. The ccw traveling resonance is depicted by the inner green ring, the ccw resonance is depicted by the outer red ring.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Out of plane H-field. The blue arrows indicate where the light enters the structure and the red arrows show where it exits.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Resonator spectrum: The dots are obtained from an FEM frequency domain simulation. The solid lines are obtained from fitting the FEM results to the coupled mode theory model in Eqs. (1a)–(1c). In this fitting procedure ω0, δω, γr, and γc were used as variables.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r=123γcj(ω0+δωω)+γr+γc23γcj(ω0δωω)+γr+γc+A,
t12=23γcexp(+jl2π3)j(ω0+δωω)+γr+γc23γcexp(jl2π3)j(ω0δωω)+γr+γc+A,
t13=23γcexp(jl2π3)j(ω0+δωω)+γr+γc23γcexp(+jl2π3)j(ω0δωω)+γr+γc+A,
A=49(γc)2(j(ω0+δωω)+γr+γc)(j(ω0δωω)+γr+γc)*(1+exp(+jl2π3)+exp(jl2π3)).
B=43|δω|2π10IdB/101,

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