Abstract

A tunable extended depth of field (EDOF) imaging is presented using temporal multiplexing and a low-cost eight-ring, annular liquid crystal spatial light modulator. By changing between different phase profiles in the pupil plane of a lens we perform several levels of EDOF. Using these levels as a “database” it is shown by temporal multiplexing how to decompose tunable levels of EDOF.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Ben-Eliezer, E. Marom, N. Konforti, and Z. Zalevsky, Appl. Opt. 45, 2001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Mezouari and A. R. Harvey, Opt. Lett. 28, 771 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Mo, Opt. Lett. 37, 1808 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. R. Dowski and T. Chathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Chi and N. George, Opt. Lett. 26, 875 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Liu, C. Liu, W.-C. Howe, C. J. R. Sheppard, and N. Chen, Opt. Lett. 32, 2375 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Chu, N. George, and W. Chi, Appl. Opt. 48, 5371 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Hausler, Opt. Commun. 6, 38 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Kingslake, Optics in Photography (SPIE, 1992).
  10. D. Hong, K. Park, H. Cho, and M. Kim, Appl. Opt. 46, 8591 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Solodar, I. Klapp, and I. Abdulhalim, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Ring type liquid crystal spatial light modulator design and optical applications.”
  13. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).
  14. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  15. A. W. Lohmann and W. Rhodes, Appl. Opt. 17, 1141 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 108, 219 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Klapp, A. Solodar, and I. Abdulhalim are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low cost annular SLM for tunable extending depth of field.”
  19. N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1998).

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 108, 219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

G. Hausler, Opt. Commun. 6, 38 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 108, 219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Solodar, I. Klapp, and I. Abdulhalim, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Ring type liquid crystal spatial light modulator design and optical applications.”

I. Klapp, A. Solodar, and I. Abdulhalim are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low cost annular SLM for tunable extending depth of field.”

Ben-Eliezer, E.

Boscha, S.

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carlesa, G.

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chathey, T.

Chen, N.

Chi, W.

Cho, H.

Chu, K.

Dowski, E. R.

George, N.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Harvey, A. R.

Harveyb, A. R.

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler, Opt. Commun. 6, 38 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hong, D.

Howe, W.-C.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Kim, M.

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Optics in Photography (SPIE, 1992).

Klapp, I.

A. Solodar, I. Klapp, and I. Abdulhalim, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Ring type liquid crystal spatial light modulator design and optical applications.”

I. Klapp, A. Solodar, and I. Abdulhalim are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low cost annular SLM for tunable extending depth of field.”

Konforti, N.

Kopeika, N. S.

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1998).

Liu, C.

Liu, L.

Lohmann, A. W.

Marom, E.

Mezouari, S.

Mo, X.

Muyob, G.

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

Rhodes, W.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Solodar, A.

A. Solodar, I. Klapp, and I. Abdulhalim, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Ring type liquid crystal spatial light modulator design and optical applications.”

I. Klapp, A. Solodar, and I. Abdulhalim are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low cost annular SLM for tunable extending depth of field.”

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Wu, S.-T.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. X.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhu, X.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, and S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 108, 219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Hausler, Opt. Commun. 6, 38 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Carlesa, G. Muyob, S. Boscha, and A. R. Harveyb, Proc. SPIE 7100, 710001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Solodar, I. Klapp, and I. Abdulhalim, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Ring type liquid crystal spatial light modulator design and optical applications.”

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

R. Kingslake, Optics in Photography (SPIE, 1992).

I. Klapp, A. Solodar, and I. Abdulhalim are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low cost annular SLM for tunable extending depth of field.”

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of (a) drawing of the filters’ rings, (b) optical scheme, and (c) setup main components showing the tunable filter attached to a lens and a linear polarizer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

“Database,” from left to right columns are: filter “OFF,” filter on with “Binary” phase mask, filter on with “QPM” phase mask at different defocus levels given in W20 [14].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average target contrast versus defocus.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tunable EDOF- experimental results found after temporal multiplexing on the “database” components of Fig. 2.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ(i)=2πλ0tneff(V(i),z)dz.
OTFFT2{|FT2{P(x,y)ejΘ(x,y)}|2}.
OTFT(f;ΦDF)n=1NFT2{|FT2{Pn(x,y)ej(Φn(x,y)+ΦDF(x,y))}|2}.
OTF(f;DFj)=1TnTn·OTF(f;DFj,Φn(x,y)).
iWi·OTF(f;DFj)=1TiTi·OTF(f;DFj).
ΦOFF(ri)=0ΦQPM(ri)=2π·(ari4+bri2)ΦBinary(ri)={πifi=6.80else,
IDFj(x,y)=iWi·Ii(x,y,DFj).
C(j)i=1NWiC(i,j).
err(W)=j=1M(i=1NWiC(i,j)C(j))2.

Metrics