Abstract

The mechanoluminescence (ML) of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ (SAO) has been of particular interest based on the possibility that these materials could be used as nondestructive, reproducible stress (or load) sensors. However, there has been no in-depth study of ML under a cyclic load. It was found that a cyclic load generated harmonics in the ML response. The second harmonic term exhibiting a doubled frequency was significant, but the others could be ignored. In addition, hysteresis behavior was observed in the ML and was examined by comparison with the hysteresis that is typical in piezoelectricity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

B. P. Chandra, J. Lumin. 128, 1217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Yamada, X. Fu, and C.-N. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Liu and C.-N. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Zhang and S. A. Billings, Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 9, 657 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. George, S. B. Mansoor, V. S. Eric, and A. Gaetano, Opt. Lett. 18, 1038 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

B. T. Brady and A. Glen, Nature 321, 488 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. J. Walton, Adv. Phys. 26, 887 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. I. Zink, G. E. Hardy, and J. E. Sutton, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, M.

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Almon, D. P.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baghel, R. N.

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Billings, S. A.

H. Zhang and S. A. Billings, Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 9, 657 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Botterman, J.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Braddell, O. G.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brady, B. T.

B. T. Brady and A. Glen, Nature 321, 488 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, B. P.

V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Chandra, J. Lumin. 128, 1217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, V. K.

V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Clabau, F.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Baere, I.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deniard, P.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eric, V. S.

Ferry, J. D.

J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers (Wiley, 1980).

Fu, X.

H. Yamada, X. Fu, and C.-N. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaetano, A.

Garcia, A.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

Glen, A.

B. T. Brady and A. Glen, Nature 321, 488 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, G. E.

J. I. Zink, G. E. Hardy, and J. E. Sutton, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harris, B.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jha, P.

V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jobic, S.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kibble, K.

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, K. Kibble, Y. N. Kwon, and K. S. Sohn, Opt. Lett. 34, 1915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuraria, R. K.

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuraria, S. R.

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y. N.

J. S. Kim, K. Kibble, Y. N. Kwon, and K. S. Sohn, Opt. Lett. 34, 1915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, C.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

LeMercier, T.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and C.-N. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahobia, S. K.

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mansoor, S. B.

Matsuzawa, T.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, Y.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. D.

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rocquefelte, X.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. Y.

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, N.

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smet, P. F.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, K. S.

Sohn, K.-S.

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J. E.

J. I. Zink, G. E. Hardy, and J. E. Sutton, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thaker, S.

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van den Eeckhout, K.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verbist, J.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walton, A. J.

A. J. Walton, Adv. Phys. 26, 887 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, M.-H.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.-N.

H. Yamada, X. Fu, and C.-N. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and C.-N. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, in Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, M. Schwarz, ed. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 190–201.

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, X. Fu, and C.-N. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and S. A. Billings, Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 9, 657 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. G.

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.-G.

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zink, J. I.

J. I. Zink, G. E. Hardy, and J. E. Sutton, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Acta Mater.

J. Botterman, K. Van den Eeckhout, I. De Baere, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, Acta Mater. 60, 5494 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys.

A. J. Walton, Adv. Phys. 26, 887 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X. G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, X. Wang, and X.-G. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Chandra, B. P. Chandra, and P. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M.-H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. LeMercier, Chem. Mater. 17, 3904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

K.-S. Sohn, S. Y. Seo, Y. N. Kwon, and H. D. Park, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, X. Fu, and C.-N. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, J362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

B. P. Chandra, J. Lumin. 128, 1217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Chandra, S. K. Mahobia, P. Jha, R. K. Kuraria, S. R. Kuraria, R. N. Baghel, and S. Thaker, J. Lumin. 128, 2038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

B. Harris, O. G. Braddell, D. P. Almon, C. Lefebvre, and J. Verbist, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

J. I. Zink, G. E. Hardy, and J. E. Sutton, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. Liu and C.-N. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mech. Syst. Signal Process.

H. Zhang and S. A. Billings, Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 9, 657 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. T. Brady and A. Glen, Nature 321, 488 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers (Wiley, 1980).

C.-N. Xu, in Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, M. Schwarz, ed. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 190–201.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ML intensity (red line belonging to left axis) along with applied load (black line belonging to right axis) at a frequency of 1 Hz.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FFT analysis of ML measured at frequencies of 1 (a), 3 (b), and 5 Hz (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ML response to the applied cyclic load and their deconvolution results at frequencies of 1 (a), 3 (b), and 5 Hz (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Load versus displacement at a frequency of 1 Hz, showing a complete coincidence with no loss.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Applied load along with the deconvoluted ML1 and ML2 at frequencies of 1 (a), 3 (b), and 5 Hz (c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Hysteresis curves consisting of three ensuing loading and deloading cycles for 1, 3, and 5 Hz.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ML(t)=[αP(t)+βP(t)2]D(t),P(t)=eiwt,D(t)=[ηet/τ1+(1η)et/τ2],α=αriαe,δ1=tan1(αe/αr),β=βriβe,δ2=tan1(βe/βr),

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