Abstract

Intuitively, light impinging on a spatially mirror-symmetric object will be scattered equally into mirror-symmetric directions. This intuition can fail at the nanoscale if the polarization of the incoming light is properly tailored, as long as mirror symmetry is broken in the axes perpendicular to both the incident wave vector and the remaining mirror-symmetric direction. The unidirectional excitation of plasmonic modes using circularly polarized light has been recently demonstrated. Here, we generalize this concept and show that linearly polarized photons impinging on a single spatially symmetric scatterer created in a silicon waveguide are guided into a certain direction of the waveguide depending exclusively on their polarization angle and the structure asymmetry. Our work broadens the scope of polarization-induced directionality beyond plasmonics, with applications in polarization (de)multiplexing, unidirectional coupling, directional switching, radiation polarization control, and polarization-encoded quantum information processing in photonic integrated circuits.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).

2012 (3)

B. B. Tsema, Y. B. Tsema, M. R. Shcherbakov, Y.-H. Lin, D.-R. Liu, V. V. Klimov, A. A. Fedyanin, and D. P. Tsai, Opt. Express 20, 10538 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

M. Sukharev and T. Seideman, Nano Lett. 6, 715 (2006).

2003 (1)

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Stockman, S. Faleev, and D. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, Opt. Express 15, 1567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellieres, L.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Bergman, D.

M. Stockman, S. Faleev, and D. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, Opt. Express 15, 1567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bongioanni, I.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, Opt. Express 17, 14235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cunovic, S.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dumon, P.

Faleev, S.

M. Stockman, S. Faleev, and D. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

Fischer, A.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, Opt. Express 17, 14235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Griol, A.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Hasman, E.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).

Jiang, J.

Jin, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).

Kim, K.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. V.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-M.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

Liu, D.-R.

Magarini, M.

Maguid, E.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marino, G.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Martínez, A.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Mataloni, P.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, P.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. P. B.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, Science 340, 331 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, D.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ozeri, D.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, Opt. Express 17, 14235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pluk, E.

Puerto, D.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rewitz, C.

Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. J.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, G. Marino, P. Ginzburg, D. O’Connor, A. Martínez, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Science 340, 328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, D. Puerto, A. Griol, L. Bellieres, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna,” Laser Photon. Rev. (submitted).

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sansoni, L.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

M. Sukharev and T. Seideman, Nano Lett. 6, 715 (2006).

Shcherbakov, M. R.

Shitrit, N.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Science 340, 724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M.

M. Stockman, S. Faleev, and D. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strüber, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sukharev, M.

M. Sukharev and T. Seideman, Nano Lett. 6, 715 (2006).

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, Opt. Express 15, 1567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sorting of polarized photons in a silicon waveguide with a single scatterer: numerical simulation showing the instantaneous magnetic field z component at the middle plane of the waveguide for a normally incident, monochromatic λ=1583nm plane wave linearly polarized at (a) θ=30° and (b) θ=30°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Symmetry explanation of the phenomenon: (a) and (b) numerical simulation showing the instantaneous Hz at the middle plane of the waveguide for a normally incident monochromatic λ=1583nm plane wave with (a) vertical polarization, θ=0° and (b) horizontal polarization, θ=90°. (c) Ratio of power between the undesired and the desired direction R=(A(β/α)B)/(A+(β/α)B). If we limit ourselves to linear polarizations (β/α)R, the optimal contrast R is obtained when (β/α)=|A/B|cos(arg(A/B)). The associated linear polarization angle θ=tan1(β/α) is plotted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup: (a) depiction of the experimental setup (not to scale); (b)–(d) infrared images of the waveguide output spots captured by the camera for three different linear polarization illuminations of the lensed fiber (λ=1550nm); (e) scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of the scatterers in the fabricated and measured sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Broadband measurements: measured and simulated output power of the waveguides for different angles of incident linear polarization at (a) 1540 nm, (b) 1550 nm, and (c) 1560 nm, obtained by processing the infrared images from the camera at different wavelengths.

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