Abstract

An all-silicon passive optical diode based on optical nonlinearity in cascaded photonic crystal (PhC) L3 cavities is proposed and demonstrated. A nonreciprocal transmission ratio (NTR) of 30.8 dB and insertion loss of 8.3 dB are realized in the device. The device has a relatively broad 17 dB operation bandwidth of 0.08 nm, and at least 16 dB of NTR is achieved when input power varies between 6.25 and 2.95dBm. A nonlinear couple mode model for cascaded PhC cavities is established to analyze the behavior of the device, and numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. El-Ganainy, P. Kumar, and M. Levy, Opt. Lett. 38, 61 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Wang, L. Fan, L. Varghese, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, B. Niu, and M. Qi, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 313 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1259 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhang, C. Hamsen, J. Choy, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 36, 2704 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, Opt. Express 13, 801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.
  18. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Yang and C. Wong, Opt. Express 15, 4763 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. El-Ganainy, P. Kumar, and M. Levy, Opt. Lett. 38, 61 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Fan, L. Varghese, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, B. Niu, and M. Qi, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1259 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. Hamsen, J. Choy, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 36, 2704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and C. Wong, Opt. Express 15, 4763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Andrich, P.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Arakawa, Y.

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P.

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J.

Deotare, P.

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, G.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R.

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

El-Ganainy, R.

Fan, L.

Fan, S.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I.

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Gomyo, A.

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Hamsen, C.

Haus, H.

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Z.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, S.

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiayang, W.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Kumar, P.

Levy, M.

Li, D.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lo Savio, R.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Loncar, M.

Y. Zhang, C. Hamsen, J. Choy, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 36, 2704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCutcheon, M.

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Niu, B.

J. Wang, L. Fan, L. Varghese, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, B. Niu, and M. Qi, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

B. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Painter, O.

Parameswaran, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Portalupi, S. L.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Qi, M.

Reardon, C.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ross, C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, and C. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.

Shen, H.

J. Wang, L. Fan, L. Varghese, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, B. Niu, and M. Qi, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

Tao, W.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, L.

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1259 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P.

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Weiner, A.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Welna, K.

L. C. Andreani, P. Andrich, M. Galli, D. Gerace, G. Guizzetti, R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, L. O’Faolain, C. Reardon, K. Welna, and T. F. Krauss, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Mo.C4.3.

Wong, C.

Xia, J.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiaofeng, H.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xinhong, J.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, Y.

Yang, X.

Yikai, S.

X. Mu, W. Jiayang, W. Tao, H. Xiaofeng, J. Xinhong, and S. Yikai, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. Doerr, and H. Renner, Nat. Photonics 7, 579 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, C.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. Hamsen, J. Choy, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, R. Dupuis, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 36, 2704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, I. Frank, M. Khan, and M. LonCar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of fabricated optical diode. Red oval represents the strong nonlinearity effect region for forward transmission, blue oval represents the strong nonlinearity effect region for backward transmission. (b) Magnified micrograph of L3 cavity. The three holes adjacent to the cavity are laterally shifted by 0.175, 0.025, and 0.175 a, respectively, indicated by green arrows. (c) Ey profile for fundamental mode supported by L3 cavity calculated by 3D FDTD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental forward and backward transmission spectra of the device at input powers of (a) 27.6dBm. (b) 7.0dBm. (c) 5.0dBm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental transmitted power for forward and backward transmission at various input powers at 1540.76 nm. (b) NTR and insertion loss at various input powers at 1540.76 nm experimentally.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental forward and backward transmitted spectra at various input wavelengths. The wavelength of input light is fixed for each curve. The curves with solid symbols represent forward transmitted spectra; curves with open symbols represent backward transmitted spectra.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated forward and backward transmission spectra of the device at various input powers of (a) 27.6dBm. (b) 6.8dBm. (c) 4.1dBm.

Equations (4)

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jωLaL=(jωL1τtotal,L)aL+1τin,Ls+1+1τin,L1τin,RaR,
jωRaR=(jωR1τtotal,R)aR+1τin,Rs+11τin,L1τin,RaL,
ω=ω+Δωthermal+Δωplasma+Δωkerr,
1τtotal=1τv+1τin+1τlin+1τTPA+1τFCA,

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