Abstract

Mid-infrared light generation through four-wave mixing-based frequency down-conversion in a normal group velocity dispersion silicon waveguide is demonstrated. A telecom-wavelength signal is down-converted across more than 1.2 octaves using a pump at 2190 nm in a 1 cm-long waveguide. At the same time, a 13 dB on-chip parametric gain of the telecom signal is obtained.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 6, 667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

2010 (4)

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, Opt. Express 15, 16604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alic, N.

F. Gholami, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Zlatanovic, N. Alic, and S. Radic, Opt. Express 21, 11415 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Ben Masaud, T. M.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Cerutti, L.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Chong, H. M.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Crowder, J. G.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gassenq, A.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Gholami, F.

Green, W.

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 6, 667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Express 19, 20172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Lett. 36, 4401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Harvey, J. D.

Hattasan, N.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Hochberg, M.

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D.

Ilic, R.

Jaberansary, E.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keddie, J.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Knight, J. C.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

Kuyken, B.

Lau, R. K. W.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leijssen, R.

Leonhardt, R.

Li, F.

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, X. P.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Menard, M.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, M.

Milosevic, M. M.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Padmaraju, K.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

Radic, S.

F. Gholami, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Zlatanovic, N. Alic, and S. Radic, Opt. Express 21, 11415 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J. B.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Roelkens, G.

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. Green, Opt. Express 21, 5931 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 6, 667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Express 19, 20172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Opt. Lett. 36, 4401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

Salem, R.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, R.

Smith, S. D.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Tournie, E.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tournié, E.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

Turner-Foster, A. C.

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vass, A.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wong, G. K. L.

Zhang, J.

Zlatanovic, S.

F. Gholami, B. P.-P. Kuo, S. Zlatanovic, N. Alic, and S. Radic, Opt. Express 21, 11415 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. M. Milosevic, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. Chong, N. G. Emerson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 6, 667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, Infrared Methods for Gas Detection (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, in Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Singapore (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Second- and fourth-order dispersion as a function of the pump wavelength for the waveguide geometry shown in the inset. The zero dispersion wavelength is at 2275 nm. The fourth-order dispersion is negative within the wavelength range of interest. (b) Phase-matched idler and signal wavelengths as a function of pump wavelength. The blue curve shows the simulated phase-matched wavelengths, for a peak pump power of 20 W, the black line for a power of 10 W. The red triangles label the positions of the experimentally observed modulation instability (MI) peaks on the blue side of the pump while the red stars correspond to the energy-conserving wavelengths on the red side of the pump. The inset shows the linear phase mismatch (βi+βs2βp) as a function of signal wavelength when the pump is centered at 2190 nm. The red curve is based on Eq. (1). The black curve shows the phase mismatch calculated with the approximation of Eq (2). The (negative of the) nonlinear phase mismatch (2γP) is also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum at the output of the 1 cm long silicon waveguide. The pump pulses are centered at a wavelength of 2265, 2255, 2248, 2240, 2232, and 2190 nm and have a coupled peak power of 12, 14, 15, 15, 16, and 20 W, respectively. The phase-matched amplification of background noise, i.e., the MI effect, is seen in a discrete band around 1560 nm for a pump wavelength of 2190 nm. The inset shows a magnification of the chopped artifact of the spectrum analyzer. Traces are vertically offset by 20 dB for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Output spectra of the spectral translator device when only the pump is injected in the silicon waveguide, showing the position of the MI sideband for pump wavelengths of 2190 nm (black), 2200 nm (red), and 2210 nm (blue), with pump peak powers of 19.2, 18.3, and 16.5 W, respectively. (b) Corresponding on-chip gain for each pump wavelength when the MI band is probed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Output spectrum recorded with an FTIR (16cm1 resolution) when the waveguide is pumped at 2190 nm with a peak power of 18.3 W, and probed by a telecom signal at 1565 nm. The converted idler is seen at 3635 nm, above the thermal background radiation signal. (b) Mid-infrared idler spectrum for telecom signal wavelengths of 1565 nm (black), 1559 nm (red), 1554 nm (blue), and 1550 nm (green).

Equations (2)

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βi+βs2βp+2γP=0.
β2Δω2+112β4Δω4+2γP=0,

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