Abstract

We report a laser-diode pumped continuous-wave (cw) and passively Q-switched eye-safe laser at about 1.42 μm with the neodymium-doped yttrium gallium garnet (Nd:YGG) crystal for the first time to our knowledge. The composite Nd:YGG crystal was developed originally. A systematic comparison of laser performance between the homogeneously doped and composite Nd:YGG crystal was made, which showed that the composite Nd:YGG manifested less thermally induced effects. Cw output power of 2.06 W was obtained with the slope efficiency of 20.7%. With a V:YAG as a saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching at 1.42 μm was gotten with the pulse width, pulse energy, and peak power of 34 ns, 46.7 μJ, and 1.4 kW, respectively. The present work should provide a potential candidate for the generation of eye-safe lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

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A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
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F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
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J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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I. V. Klimov, I. A. Shcherbakov, and V. B. Tsvetkov, Proc. SPIE 3829, 165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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1997 (1)

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1994 (1)

N. Hodgson, D. J. Golding, and D. Eisel, Proc. SPIE 2206, 426 (1994).
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M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
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S. K. Wong, P. Mathieu, and P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 650 (1990).
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A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
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Agnesi, A.

Bagdasarov, K. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F.

Bogomolova, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

Chang, Y. T.

Chen, X. H.

Chen, Y. F.

Cho, W. B.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. W.

H. C. Lee, J. W. Choi, and Y. P. Kim, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 045002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cong, Z. H.

Curcio, J. A.

Dao, P. D.

Dell’Acqua, S.

Ding, X.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doroshenko, M. E.

M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, T. Sanamyan, and M. Dubinskii, Opt. Fiber Technol. 34, 1949 (2009).

Eisel, D.

N. Hodgson, D. J. Golding, and D. Eisel, Proc. SPIE 2206, 426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farley, R. W.

Gao, L.

Gobbi, P. G.

Godard, A.

A. Godard, C.R. Physique 8, 1100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golding, D. J.

N. Hodgson, D. J. Golding, and D. Eisel, Proc. SPIE 2206, 426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gritsenko, M. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heine, F.

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson, D. J. Golding, and D. Eisel, Proc. SPIE 2206, 426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. H.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, Y. J.

Huang, Y. P.

Huber, G.

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Kretschmann, F. Heine, V. G. Ostroumov, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 22, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huíibek, P.

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jelínková, H.

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
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Jiang, M. H.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kevorkov, A. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. P.

H. C. Lee, J. W. Choi, and Y. P. Kim, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 045002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kisel, V. E.

Klimov, I. V.

I. V. Klimov, I. A. Shcherbakov, and V. B. Tsvetkov, Proc. SPIE 3829, 165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koporulina, E. V.

Kretschmann, H. M.

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Kretschmann, F. Heine, V. G. Ostroumov, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 22, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubecek, V.

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kurichik, S. V.

Lan, W. X.

Lee, H. C.

H. C. Lee, J. W. Choi, and Y. P. Kim, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 045002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, M.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leonyuk, N. I.

Li, J. H.

Li, P.

Lin, J. P.

Lin, W. X.

Lin, Z. Z.

Liu, Z. J.

Maltsev, V. V.

Mathieu, P.

S. K. Wong, P. Mathieu, and P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

Pace, P.

S. K. Wong, P. Mathieu, and P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pánek, J.

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pennacchio, C.

Petrov, V.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petty, C. C.

Peyghambarian, N.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pilipenko, O. V.

Podlipensky, A. V.

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G.

Rotermund, F.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanamyan, T.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, T. Sanamyan, and M. Dubinskii, Opt. Fiber Technol. 34, 1949 (2009).

Schmidt, A.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

I. V. Klimov, I. A. Shcherbakov, and V. B. Tsvetkov, Proc. SPIE 3829, 165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H. B.

Shi, F.

Sigachev, V. B.

M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Su, R. B.

Tao, X. T.

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, T. Sanamyan, and M. Dubinskii, Opt. Fiber Technol. 34, 1949 (2009).

Timoshechkin, M. I.

M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, N. A.

Tsvetkov, V. B.

I. V. Klimov, I. A. Shcherbakov, and V. B. Tsvetkov, Proc. SPIE 3829, 165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vylegzhanin, D. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Q. P.

Wang, W. T.

Wang, Z. P.

Wong, S. K.

S. K. Wong, P. Mathieu, and P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

Wu, Z. G.

Xu, C. H.

Xu, J.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

Yeom, D. I.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yim, J. H.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Yumashev, K. V.

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zavoral, M.

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, W. R.

Zhang, C.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, H. N.

Zhang, X. Y.

Zheng, H.

Zhuang, J.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 76, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Xu, G. Zhang, M. Leigh, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Wong, P. Mathieu, and P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 650 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C.R. Physique (1)

A. Godard, C.R. Physique 8, 1100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czech. J. Phys. (1)

J. Pánek, P. Hŭíibek, V. Kubeček, H. Jelínková, and M. Zavoral, Czech. J. Phys. 50, 1027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. C. Lee, J. W. Choi, and Y. P. Kim, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 045002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, T. Sanamyan, and M. Dubinskii, Opt. Fiber Technol. 34, 1949 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (9)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, D. N. Vylegzhanin, K. S. Bagdasarov, A. M. Kevorkov, and M. M. Gritsenko, Phys. Status Solidi A 38, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

N. Hodgson, D. J. Golding, and D. Eisel, Proc. SPIE 2206, 426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Klimov, I. A. Shcherbakov, and V. B. Tsvetkov, Proc. SPIE 3829, 165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. B. Sigachev, and M. I. Timoshechkin, Quantum Electron. 23, 490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configuration of the Nd:YGG laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average output powers versus absorbed pump power of composite and homogeneously doped Nd:YGG crystal lasers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of Nd:YGG laser at about 1.42 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Repetition rate and pulse width with the increase of absorbed pump power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pulse profile with a width of 34 ns. Inset: pulse trains with a repetition rate of 6.8 kHz.

Equations (2)

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Pth=πhc(ωp2+ωc2)(T+δ)4στλp
η=ωc2λpTλc(ωp2+ωc2)(T+δ),

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