Abstract

By using frequency upconversion detection of terahertz (THz) waves via 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystal with an optimized frequency conversion process, ultrahigh sensitivity has been achieved. Direct comparisons with a 4 K bolometer were implemented. By using a simple positive intrinsic negative (PIN) diode without either electrical amplification or optical amplification, frequency upconversion detection can compete with the commercial 4 K bolometer, while by replacing the PIN diode with an avalanche photo diode (APD), it performs more than three orders better than the 4 K bolometer. Based on power calibration, the minimum detectable THz pulse energy is in the order of 10 aJ (9–25 aJ) at 4.3 THz, with a pulse duration of 6 ns. Thus, the minimum number of THz photons that can be detected is down to the order of 103 at room temperature. The current THz detection system gives a noise equivalent power (NEP) in the order of 100fW/Hz1/2 (50128fW/Hz1/2). Moreover, by switching current optical detectors, the dynamic range is over six orders.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, Z. Liau, and S. Kaushik, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 79 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohno, K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Opt. Express 18, 17306, (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, Opt. Lett. 33, 2725 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, Opt. Lett. 32, 3248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Opt. Express 14, 8311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal and B. Lax, Nonlinear Infrared Generation (Springer, 1977).

Chen, J. C.

Ding, Y.

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Opt. Express 14, 8311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

Hopkins, F. K.

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, T.

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohno, K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Opt. Express 18, 17306, (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

Kawamata, H.

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Kawase, K.

Khan, M. J.

Komiyama, S.

S. Komiyama, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lax, B.

R. L. Aggarwal and B. Lax, Nonlinear Infrared Generation (Springer, 1977).

Liau, Z.

M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, Z. Liau, and S. Kaushik, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 79 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsukawa, T.

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Minamide, H.

S. Hayashi, K. Nawata, H. Sakai, T. Taira, H. Minamide, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 20, 2881 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohno, K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Opt. Express 18, 17306, (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Miyamoto, K.

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohno, K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Opt. Express 18, 17306, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nawahara, A.

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

S. Hayashi, K. Nawata, H. Sakai, T. Taira, H. Minamide, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 20, 2881 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Notake, T.

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Ohno, S.

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohno, K. Miyamoto, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Opt. Express 18, 17306, (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, F.

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

Sato, T.

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Opt. Express 14, 8311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sizov, F.

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suizu, K.

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Yamashita, T.

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Shi, Y. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, S. Ohno, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Minamide, J. Zhang, R. Guo, K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, Z. Liau, and S. Kaushik, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 79 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Ito, K. Suizu, T. Yamashita, A. Nawahara, and T. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7321 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opto-Electron. Rev.

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Aggarwal and B. Lax, Nonlinear Infrared Generation (Springer, 1977).

F. Qi, K. Nawata, T. Notake, H. Kawamata, T. Matsukawa, and H. Minamide, in 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2012), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

THz frequency upconversion detection system setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Comparisons between frequency upconversion detection by using PIN diode, APD, and 4 K bolometer. (b) Readout from the APD, when the THz power reaches the limit of the positive intrinsic negative (PIN) diode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Power calibration by SPI-A-65 THz with the is-TPG source.

Equations (1)

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τTHz=τIRτout/τIR2τout2=6ns.

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