Abstract

We present time-resolved measurements of the gas acoustic dynamics following interaction of spatial single- and higher-mode 50 fs, 800 nm pulses in air at 10 Hz and 1 kHz repetition rates. Results are in excellent agreement with hydrodynamic simulations. Under no conditions for single filaments do we find on-axis enhancement of gas density; this occurs only with multifilaments. We also investigate the propagation of probe beams in the gas density profile induced by a single extended filament. We find that light trapping in the expanding annular acoustic wave can create the impression of on-axis guiding in a limited temporal window.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Gao, and W. Liu, J. Phys. B 44, 215404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Gao, W. Chu, G. Yu, B. Zeng, J. Zhao, Z. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Opt. Express 21, 4612 (2013).
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2013 (3)

2011 (1)

L. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Gao, and W. Liu, J. Phys. B 44, 215404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. P. Birch, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 8, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Alexeev, I.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 8, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, R.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

Bochkarev, N. N.

Boutou, V.

Chen, M.

Cheng, Y.

Cheng, Y.-H.

Chien, C.-Y.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

Clough, B.

Cohen, O.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Comtois, D.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desparois, A.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Favre, C.

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Geffroy, S.

Hao, Z.-Q.

Hüller, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jhajj, N.

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 28980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

Johnston, T.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaminer, I.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Kartashov, D. V.

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kirsanov, A. V.

Kiselev, A. M.

La Fontaine, B.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lahav, O.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Levi, L.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Liu, J.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Gao, and W. Liu, J. Phys. B 44, 215404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Lu, X.

Mercure, H. P.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 28980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 10, 1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

Mondelain, D.

Mora, P.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemirovsky, J.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Nemirovsky, R. A.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orr, I.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Parra, E.

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ponomarev, Y. N.

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, F.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, E. W.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

Salmon, E.

Segev, M.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. N.

Tikhomirov, B. A.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 28980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

Wang, C.

L. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Gao, and W. Liu, J. Phys. B 44, 215404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z.-H.

Wei, Z.-Y.

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Opt. 42, 7117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yu, G.

Yu, J.

Zahedpour, S.

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.

Zeng, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J.

Zheng, Z.-Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. (1)

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. 28, 418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

K. P. Birch, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 8, 647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

L. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Gao, and W. Liu, J. Phys. B 44, 215404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Link to movies of experiment and simulation, http://lasermatter.umd.edu/HTML%20Files/Publications.htm.

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.

D. R. Lide, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. (CRC Press, 1996).

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X, to be published.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Acoustic gas dynamics following an ionizing pulse in air. The refractive index change Δn is shown at time T after the passage of the pulse. Blue: T=80ns; green: T=280ns; red: T=480ns. (a) Hydrocode simulation. The calculated Δn is plotted as a function of transverse coordinate. (b) Sequence of Δn profile lineouts obtained by interferometry of a 2 mm long plasma [10].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured refractive index profiles induced by 60 μJ pump pulses at 1 kHz. The delays shown are with respect to passage of the pump pulse. The thermal gas density hole left between pulses is seen in the 60 μs delay panel.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and simulated air refractive index profiles induced by a TEM01 focus (vacuum peak lobe intensity 2.5×1014W/cm2) (a)–(d) and an LG04 focus (vacuum peak lobe intensity 3×1014W/cm2) (e)–(h). The inset between (e) and (f) shows an expanded view of the focused LG04 beam mode at low intensity. The simulations in (g) and (h) assume a continuous ring heat source at t=0 with a Gaussian cross section at the ring location.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of the axial dependence of energy deposition in a single filament and simulation of the propagation of a probe beam in the postfilament gas density profile. (a) Measured acoustic amplitude along the filament. The filamenting pulse propagates right-to-left. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the signal amplitude over 100 shots at each position. The inset shows a sample acoustic trace measured by the microphone. (b)–(d) Beam propagation method simulations of a probe beam propagating left-to-right using hydrocode-generated gas index profiles weighted by the acoustic data of (a). The leftmost panels show index profiles associated with the maximum acoustic amplitude (near z=42cm) for the postfilament time delays in (b)–(d).

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