Abstract

A design for enhancing the quality (Q) factor of a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) is introduced. The highest Q factor based on simulations is 121,000. The analysis of momentum space distributions of the electric field profile for PCRR resonance shows that a high Q factor of a PCRR is attributed to the reduction of tangential k-vector component inside the leaky region. A high Q factor of 75,200 is experimentally demonstrated for a modified PCRR on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The high-Q-factor PCRR demonstrated here will be beneficial for channel drop filters, lasers, sensors, and other applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ren, L. Feng, Z. Lin, and J. Feng, Opt. Lett. 38, 1416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Fu, Y.-S. Lee, and S.-D. Lin, Opt. Lett. 38, 4915 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

H. Takagi, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Opt. Express 20, 28292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. Zhang, C. Hamsen, J. T. Choy, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 36, 2704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, and M. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 4028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Opt. Express 15, 16161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, Opt. Express 15, 1823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abrishamian, M.

M. Djavid, F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, and M. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 4028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abrishamian, M. S.

F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Appl. Opt. 48, 804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alija, A. R.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Asano, T.

Barclay, P. E.

Bermel, P.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Chen, C.-C.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-S.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J. T.

Chun, J.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Appl. Opt. 48, 804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, and M. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 4028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dotor, M. L.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Feng, L.

Fu, Y.-J.

Galli, M.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghaffari, A.

F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Appl. Opt. 48, 804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, and M. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 4028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golmayo, D.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamsen, C.

Hao, W.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hongliang, R.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, F.-L.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Z.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Iwamoto, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Opt. Express 15, 16161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2011).

Johnson, S. G.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Opt. Express 15, 16161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2011).

Khan, M. J.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

Lee, C.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

Li, D.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-D.

Lin, Z.

Liping, C.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Mai, T. T.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, L. J.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruizumi, T.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2011).

Monifi, F.

F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Appl. Opt. 48, 804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Djavid, F. Monifi, A. Ghaffari, and M. Abrishamian, Opt. Commun. 281, 4028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Ota, Y.

Painter, O.

Park, H.-G.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patrini, M.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Postigo, P. A.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, Z.

Quanjun, C.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

Rodriguez, A.

Ryou, J.-H.

Ryu, H.-Y.

S.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Ryu, H.-G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shuqin, G.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.-S.

Soref, R. A.

Srinivasan, K.

Takagi, H.

Takano, H.

Viktorovitch, P.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weisheng, H.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2011).

Xia, J.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W.

T. T. Mai, F.-L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C.-C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yali, Q.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yaohui, J.

R. Hongliang, Q. Yali, W. Hao, C. Quanjun, G. Shuqin, C. Liping, H. Weisheng, J. Chun, and J. Yaohui, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Y. Zhang, D. Li, C. Zeng, Y. Shi, Z. Huang, J. Yu, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, C.

Y. Zhang, C. Zeng, D. Li, Z. Huang, K. Li, J. Yu, J. Li, X. Xu, T. Maruizumi, and J. Xia, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4500607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Proposed PCRR structure. The radius of the six air holes at the corners of outer PhC, indicated with green circles, is tuned to obtain the higher Q factor. (b) Simulated transmission spectra of the perfect lattice (black curve) and the PCRR structure (red curve). The inset in (b) shows the zoomed simulated spectra of modes 4, 5, and 6. The simulated Ey profiles for the PCRR resonances at (c) 1594.12 nm, (d) 1585.35 nm, (e) 1581.87 nm, (f) 1544.70 nm, (g) 1542.14 nm, (h) 1541.19 nm, (i) 1526.09 nm, and (j) 1507.71 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Calculated Q factors and resonant wavelengths of the cavity mode shown in Fig. 1(f) supported by the modified PCRR with different Δr. (b) Calculated Q factors of seven other modes supported by the modified PCRR with different Δr.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Ratio of the leaky components versus Δr. (b) Simulated Ey profiles for the mode supported by the modified PCRR with Δr=19nm. (c) and (d) are the corresponding momentum space distributions for the Ey profiles shown in Fig. 1(f) and 3(b), respectively. The color scales of momentum space distributions are plotted in a natural logarithm scale for clarity. The white circle represents the light cone of the silicon membrane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SEM image of the fabricated modified PCRR. (b) Magnified micrograph of the corner of the modified PCRR.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the fabricated modified PCRR with Δr=14nm. The spectrum is measured by low-power broadband ASE for high speed. (b) Zoomed spectrum of mode 4, which is measured by a tunable laser (2 pm resolution) for high accuracy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Experimental unload Q factors of mode 4 of the modified PCRRs with different Δr. (b) Experimental resonant wavelengths of mode 4 of modified PCRRs with different Δr. (c) Experimental unload Q factors of mode 6 of the modified PCRRs with different Δr.

Equations (1)

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Qunload=Qload/T,

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