Abstract

A graphene coated microfiber Bragg grating (GMFBG) for gas sensing is reported in this Letter. Taking advantage of the surface field enhancement and gas absorption of a GMFBG, we demonstrate an ultrasensitive approach to detect the concentration of chemical gas. The obtained sensitivities are 0.2 and 0.5 ppm for NH3 and xylene gas, respectively, which are tens of times higher than that of a GMFBG without graphene for tiny gas concentration change detection. Experimental results indicate that the GMFBG-based NH3 gas sensor has fast response due to its highly compact structure. Such a miniature fiber-optic element may find applications in high sensitivity gas sensing and trace analysis.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. He, Z. Liu, and D. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 2394 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Hanson, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Yavari and N. Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1746 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, Science 332, 1291 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).
  12. Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. V. Kotov, M. A. Kolchenko, and Yu. E. Lozovik, Opt. Express 21, 13533 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).
  16. F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

2013 (6)

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

O. V. Kotov, M. A. Kolchenko, and Yu. E. Lozovik, Opt. Express 21, 13533 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

X. He, Z. Liu, and D. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 2394 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Yavari and N. Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, Science 332, 1291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. W. Hanson, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amin, R.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dugasani, S.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, Science 332, 1291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

Grigorenko, A.

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haley, C.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

Hill, E.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R.

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwangb, T.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, M.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Kim, T.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Kolchenko, M. A.

Koratkar, N.

F. Yavari and N. Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, O. V.

Kulkarni, A.

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

Li, D.

D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

Li, P.

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

Liu, Z.

Loh, K.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Low, T.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lozovik, Yu. E.

Mikhailov, S. A.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, S.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K.

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polini, M.

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

Schedin, F.

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, Science 332, 1291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

Xia, F.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

B. Yao, Y. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Rao, Y. Gong, Y. Chen, and Y. Li, Opt. Express 21, 29818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

Yavari, F.

F. Yavari and N. Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, K.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Li, X. Hao, J. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. Li, ACS Nano 5, 7149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Wu, B. Yao, Y. Cheng, X. Liu, Y. Gong, and Y. Rao, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 4400206 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

F. Yavari and N. Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Schedin, A. Geim, S. Morozov, E. Hill, P. Blake, M. Katsnelson, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5, 411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, Nat. Photonics 7, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, Nat. Photonics 6, 749 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, Nature 474, 64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Sens. (1)

D. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, Photon. Sens. 3, 112 (2013).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 016803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, Science 332, 1291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Kim, T. Hwangb, S. Dugasani, R. Amin, A. Kulkarni, and T. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 187, 426 (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Structure of the GMFBG. (b) Cross-section of the GMFBG. (c) Sensing principle of the GMFBG. (d) Fabrication process and the SEM photographs of the MFBG and GMFBG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated electric field distributions for MFBGs and GMFBGs. (a), (c), and (e) MFBGs with diameter of 8, 11, and 15 μm. (b), (d), and (f) GMFBGs with diameter of 8, 11, and 15 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental setup. (b) Reflection spectrum of the MFBG and GMFBG. (c) Spectral alterations of the GMFBG in NH3 gas. (d) Spectral alterations of the GMFBG in xylene gas.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results. (a) and (b) are the spectral shifts and peak intensities of the GMFBG for sensing NH3 and xylene gas, respectively. (c) Cyclical response of the GMFBG during 100 min. (d) Repeatability of the GMFBG.

Equations (1)

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λ=2neffΛ.

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