Abstract

For conventional ghost imaging (GI) systems, the object image is obtained based on the reflective or transmissive character of the object. When the object and its background have the same reflectivity or transmittance, conventional GI is helpless in detecting the object from the background. An improvement is to use the polarization components of the reflected or transmitted light. We propose a polarimetric GI system that employs a polarization state generator and a polarization state analyzer. This feature allows for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, imaging the object buried in the same reflectivity or transmittance background, which represents a breakthrough for GI applications. Using a combination of intensity and polarization information, we are better able to distinguish between the background and the different material objects.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and R. W. Boyd, Quantum Inf. Process. 11, 949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Katkovnik and J. Astola, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Karmakar and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033845 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Alouini, F. Goudail, A. Grisard, J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, A. Bénière, I. Baarstad, T. Løke, P. Kaspersen, X. Normandin, and G. Berginc, Appl. Opt. 48, 1610 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

Astola, J.

Baarstad, I.

Bénière, A.

Berginc, G.

Bina, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bourderionnet, J.

Boyd, R. W.

J. H. Shapiro and R. W. Boyd, Quantum Inf. Process. 11, 949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Breugnot, S.

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bromberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (John Wiley, 1998).

Chan, K. W. C.

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Chen, M. L.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

Christnacher, F.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. S. L.

Clémenceau, P.

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

Dolfi, D.

Edgar, M. P.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. L.

Gong, W.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Gong, W. L.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goudail, F.

Grisard, A.

Han, S.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Han, S. S.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, N. D.

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jiao, J.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Jonathan, P.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karmakar, S.

S. Karmakar and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033845 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaspersen, P.

Katkovnik, V.

Katz, O.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurenzis, M.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Li, E. R.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Løke, T.

Lugiato, L. A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, Y.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Magatti, D.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matwyschuk, A.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molteni, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

Normandin, X.

O’Sullivan, M. N.

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Poyet, J.-M.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sadjadi, F. A.

Shapiro, J. H.

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and R. W. Boyd, Quantum Inf. Process. 11, 949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Shih, Y. H.

S. Karmakar and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033845 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Wang, H.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Welsh, S. S.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Xu, W. D.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

Zhao, C. Q.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, Opt. Eng. 51, 061302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Karmakar and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033845 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Hardy and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 8618, 86180I (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Inf. Process. (1)

J. H. Shapiro and R. W. Boyd, Quantum Inf. Process. 11, 949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (John Wiley, 1998).

W. Gong, C. Zhao, J. Jiao, E. Li, M. Chen, H. Wang, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar,” arXiv:1301.5767 (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The setup for the polarimetric GI system. The laser beam enters a rotating ground glass (RGG) followed by the PSG system that consists of a linear polarizer (LP) and a quarter-wave plate (QWP). Then the beam is split into two beams by the beam splitter (BS). One of the beams is then used to illuminate the object and the reflected light enters the PSA system that consists of a QWP and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) which separates the light into two orthogonal parts. Last, the two parts of light are collected by two nonspatially resolving detectors (NSD). The transverse intensity distribution of the other beam is measured by a CCD camera. The polarization ghost image of the object is produced by the correlation between the outputs of the detectors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Original scenes are used in the simulation experiments.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results for the first simulation. Top row: conventional GI reconstruction with (A) 50,000 realizations and (B) 100,000 realizations. Bottom row [(C) and (D)]: polarimetric GI reconstruction using the same experimental condition as in (A) and (B).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results for the second simulation. Top row: conventional GI reconstruction with (A) 30,000 realizations and (B) 60,000 realizations. Middle row [(C) and (D)]: polarimetric GI reconstruction using the same experimental condition as in (A) and (B). (E) Fused images (A) and (C), and (F) fused images (B) and (D) are the fusion color RGB images which show combination information.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Mueller Matrix Elements

Equations (11)

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DOP=Q2+U2+V2I.
Sre=M·Sin,
M=[10000m110000m110000m33],
Sina=(12/32/33/3)T,
MPSA1=12[12/32/33/312/32/33/300000000],
MPSA2=12[12/32/33/312/32/33/300000000].
I1=12[1+13(2m11+m33)],
I2=12[113(2m11+m33)].
G(x)=1Nn=1NIB(n)I(n)(x)1N2n=1NIB(n)n=1NI(n)(x),
IPGI(n)=I1(n)I2(n).
ICGI(n)=I1(n)+I2(n).

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