Abstract

In this Letter, a novel waveguide based on hybrid surface plasmon polaritons (HSPPs) is proposed and numerically analyzed. This waveguide consists of two dielectric nanowires placed on both sides of a nanowedge-patterned metal film, which can confine light in the ultra-deep-subwavelength region (ranging from λ2/4000 to λ2/400) with a long propagation length (ranging from 1200 to 3500 μm). Compared to a previous HSPPs waveguide without the nanowedges, with the same propagation length, our proposed structure has much higher mode confinement with 1 order of magnitude smaller normalized mode area. An investigation of the effect of structural perturbations indicates that our proposed waveguide also has good tolerance of fabrication errors. The proposed waveguide could be an interesting alternative structure to realize nanolasers and optical trapping.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bian, Y. S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, T. Zhang, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, Opt. Express 20, 20535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Denlinger, J.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

Ebbesen, T. W.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Haraguchi, M.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. P.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, T. Zhang, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, Opt. Express 20, 20535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirchain, R.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kukui, M.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuykendall, T.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, T. Zhang, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, Opt. Express 20, 20535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. M.

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mu, J. W.

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

Pauzauskie, P. J.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirbuly, D.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

Volkov, V. S.

Yang, P.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. D.

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. B.

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zenin, V. A.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, X.

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, T.

Zhu, J. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W. P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ogawa, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Kukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

X. D. Yang, Y. M. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 11, 321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, and P. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the cross section of the proposed HNWSPPs waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependences of the modal properties of the proposed structure at a wavelength of 1550 nm. (a) The normalized mode area A; (b) the propagation length Lp and the ratio of power inside the metal region ROPmetal. EM energy density patterns for (c) [g=2nm, θ=100deg], (d) [g=10nm, θ=100deg], (e) [g=2nm, θ=160deg], and (f) [g=2nm, θ=20deg].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modal properties as a function of the RI of the cladding layer material.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modal properties versus the horizontal misalignment distance s for two possible types of misalignment shown in the insets: off-centered at one side and at both sides with a distance s. The EM energy density distributions for (b) aligned, (c) off-centered at one side, and (d) off-centered at both sides structures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modal properties versus the curvature radius of the nanowedge rounded tip.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Parametric plot of the propagation length versus the normalized mode area for our proposed HNWSPPs waveguide (b), (c) a HSPPs waveguide in [8], (d) a HSPPs waveguide in [6], and (e) a HNWSPPs waveguide in [7].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagrams of the fabrication principle.

Equations (1)

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Aeff=Wmmax{W(x,y)}=W(x,y)dxdymax{W(x,y)},

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