Abstract

We propose a laser Doppler projection tomography (LDPT) method to obtain visualization of three-dimensional (3D) flowing structures. With LDPT, the flowing signal is extracted by a modified laser Doppler method, and the 3D flowing image is reconstructed by the filtered backprojection algorithm. Phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate that LDPT is able to obtain 3D flowing structure with higher signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Our experiment results display its potentially useful application to develop 3D label-free optical angiography for the circulation system of live small animal models or microfluidic experiments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

2009 (1)

J. Colas and J. Sharpe, Organogenesis 5, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahlgren, U.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amir, W.

Andrea, C. D.

A. Bassi, L. Fieramonti, C. D. Andrea, M. Mione, and G. Valentini, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 100502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baldock, R.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, A.

A. Bassi, L. Fieramonti, C. D. Andrea, M. Mione, and G. Valentini, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 100502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bugeon, L.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Clough, G. F.

Colas, J.

J. Colas and J. Sharpe, Organogenesis 5, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J. A.

Dallman, M. J.

Davidson, D.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Feng, G.

Fieramonti, L.

A. Bassi, L. Fieramonti, C. D. Andrea, M. Mione, and G. Valentini, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 100502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

Gibson, E. A.

Gill, C. A.

Gruber, A.

Han, D.

Hanson, S. R.

Hayes-Gill, B. R.

He, D.

Hill, B.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, S.

Jacques, S. L.

Lamb, J. R.

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, C.

Liang, X.

Lu, X.

Ma, Z.

Marr, D. W. M.

McGinty, J.

Mione, M.

A. Bassi, L. Fieramonti, C. D. Andrea, M. Mione, and G. Valentini, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 100502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

Nguyen, H. C.

Perry, P.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rensen, J. H.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, D.

Serov, A.

Sharpe, J.

J. Colas and J. Sharpe, Organogenesis 5, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, J. H. Rensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinacher, B.

Taylor, H. B.

Valentini, G.

A. Bassi, L. Fieramonti, C. D. Andrea, M. Mione, and G. Valentini, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 100502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. Y.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Yang, G.

Zeng, Y.

Zeng, Y. G.

Zhang, H. F.

Zhu, Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Sketch of Doppler signal recorded by a camera, (b) the Doppler light signal, (c) stationary light signal captured by shorter exposure time and low sampling speed, and (d) the Doppler signal Pi(x,y,f) and stationary signal PDC(x,y) in the frequency domain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the experiment setup. (b) “F” and “S” are the flow and static phantoms, respectively, “Z” is the illumination direction of white light in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raw images illuminated by (a) white light and (b) laser source. (c) Image processing with Eq. (1) of (b). (d) reconstructed cross-sectional OPT image and (g) LDPT image. Curves (e) and (h) along the horizontal dashed line indicate (d) and (g), where AA and BB are the half-amplitude and quarter-amplitude lines. (f) 3D OPT image. (i) 3D LDPT image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Tubes 1 and 2 with intralipid concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, (b) tubes 3 and 4 with velocity 3 and 0.5mm/s, respectively, curves (c) and (d) along the horizontal dashed line indicate (a) and (b).

Equations (2)

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M(x,y)=f1f2Pi(x,y,f)dfPDC(x,y),
K(x,z)=0πM(l,θ)*c(l)×δ(xcosθ+zsinθl)dldθ,

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