Abstract

We have developed a radio-frequency local oscillator remote distribution system, which transfers a phase-stabilized 10.03 GHz signal over 100 km optical fiber. The phase noise of the remote signal caused by temperature and mechanical stress variations on the fiber is compensated by a high-precision phase-correction system, which is achieved using a single sideband modulator to transfer the phase correction from intermediate frequency to radio frequency, thus enabling accurate phase control of the 10 GHz signal. The residual phase noise of the remote 10.03 GHz signal is measured to be 70dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset, and long-term stability of less than 1×1016 at 10,000 s averaging time is achieved. Phase error is less than ±0.03π.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. Logan and G. F. Lutes, in 46th Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 310–316.
  3. B. Shillue, ALMA Memo # 443, ALMA LO Distribution Round Trip Phase Correction (2002).
  4. B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP, 2004), pp. 201–204.
  5. J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).
  6. J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, and J. C. Bergquist, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. F. Lutes, in 12th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Appl. and Planning Meeting (NASA, 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 663–680.
  9. M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).
  11. K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).
  13. G. Marra, R. Slavík, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and P. Gill, Opt. Lett. 36, 511 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 202–211.
  17. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. He, B. J. Orr, K. G. H. Baldwin, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, G. Aben, and R. B. Warrington, Opt. Express 21, 18754 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques (Wiley, 2005).
  20. M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2011

2010

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

2007

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Aben, G.

AlBanna, S.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Bergquist, J. C.

Berkeley, E. O. L.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, and J. C. Bergquist, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J. M.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Addario, L.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Daussy, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Doolittle, L.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, F. M.

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques (Wiley, 2005).

Gill, P.

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

He, Y.

Holman, K. W.

Hosokawa, M.

Huang, S.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Ishiguro, M.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Kitching, J.

Kiuchi, H.

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).

Kumagai, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

Logan, R. T.

R. T. Logan and G. F. Lutes, in 46th Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 310–316.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 202–211.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Y. He, B. J. Orr, K. G. H. Baldwin, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, G. Aben, and R. B. Warrington, Opt. Express 21, 18754 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lutes, G. F.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 202–211.

G. F. Lutes, in 12th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Appl. and Planning Meeting (NASA, 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 663–680.

R. T. Logan and G. F. Lutes, in 46th Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 310–316.

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

McClelland, D. E.

Musha, M.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Orr, B. J.

Peng, J. L.

Petropoulos, P.

Primas, L. E.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 202–211.

Ratti, A.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Richardson, D. J.

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, B. S.

Shillue, B.

B. Shillue, ALMA Memo # 443, ALMA LO Distribution Round Trip Phase Correction (2002).

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Slavík, R.

Staples, J. W.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Swann, W. C.

Tjoelker, R. L.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, A.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, R. B.

Wilcox, R.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Williams, P. A.

Wouters, M. J.

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Musha, Y. Sato, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, A. Ueda, and M. Ishiguro, Appl. Phys. B 82, 555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. 48, 35 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Linac

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, A. Ratti, J. W. Staples, R. Wilcox, and E. O. L. Berkeley, Linac 06, 577 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques (Wiley, 2005).

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1989), pp. 202–211.

R. T. Logan and G. F. Lutes, in 46th Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 310–316.

B. Shillue, ALMA Memo # 443, ALMA LO Distribution Round Trip Phase Correction (2002).

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP, 2004), pp. 201–204.

G. F. Lutes, in 12th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Appl. and Planning Meeting (NASA, 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 663–680.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the remote distribution of LO signal over 100 km optical fiber. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; LF, loop filter; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; OC, optical circulator; PD, photo-detector; PFD, phase frequency detector; Rb, rubidium; RF, radio frequency; SMF, single mode fiber; SSB, single sideband modulator; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Residual phase noise (at 10.03 GHz) and (b) Allan deviation of LO distribution system. Noise equivalent bandwidth is 500 Hz (τ0=1ms). The three curves show the phase noise of a locked 100 km system, a free-running system, and a 1 m fiber system, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase error of remote signal in three configurations: locked 100 km system, free-running system, and 1 m short fiber system, respectively. Inset shows magnified plot of locked and 1 m short fiber system phase.

Equations (6)

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Et(t)=cos[(ωRF+ωv)t+φRF(t)+φv(t)],
Er(t)=cos[(ωRF+ωv)t+φRF+φv(t)φτ(t)],
Ert(t)=cos[(ωRF+ωv)t+φRF+φv(t)2φτ(t)].
EM3(t)=cos[(2N+1)ωRbt+φRb+2(φv(t)φτ(t))].
Eerr(t)=φRb[2φv(t)+φRb2φτ(t)]/(2N+1).
Er(lock)(t)=cos[(ωRF+ωv)t+φRF+NφRb]=cos[(ωRF+NωRb)t+φRF+NφRb].

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