Abstract

The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been proposed for the purpose of removing the detector side channel attacks. Due to the multiphoton events of coherent states sources, real-life implementations of MDI-QKD protocol must employ decoy states to beat the photon-number-splitting attack. Decoy states for MDI-QKD based on the weak coherent states (WCSs) have been studied recently. In this Letter, we propose to perform MDI-QKD protocol with modified coherent states (MCS) sources. We simulate the performance of MDI-QKD with the decoy states based on MCS sources. And our simulation indicates that both the secure-key rate and transmission distance can be improved evidently with MCS sources. The physics behind this improvement is that the probability of multiphoton events of the MCS is lower than that of WCSs while at the same time the probability of single-photon is higher.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 87, 012320 (2013).
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Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130502 (2012).
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X. Ma and M. Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).
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2011 (2)

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
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C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
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D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

2006 (2)

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y.-J. Lu and Z.-Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 023601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bao, W.-S.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bourennane, M.

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Braunstein, S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, P.

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

Chau, H. F.

H.-K. Lo and H. F. Chau, Science 283, 2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-Y.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, K.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Curty, M.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fred Fung, C.-H.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C.-H. F.

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Gao, W.-B.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, F.

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gobby, C.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gui, Y.-Z.

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.-F.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. W.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hening, A.

Hiskett, P. A.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-Z.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Hughes, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jain, N.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, P.

Karlsson, A.

Kimura, T.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.-Y.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Li, H.-W.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Li, L.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z.

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Lita, A. E.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Liu, N.-L.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ljunggren, D.

Lo, H.-K.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo and H. F. Chau, Science 283, 2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Lu, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lu and Z.-Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 023601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucio-Martinez, I.

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

Lütkenhaus, N.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lydersen, L.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.-X.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma and M. Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, V.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mo, X.-F.

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z.-Y.

Y.-J. Lu and Z.-Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 023601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-W.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelc, J. S.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.-Z.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pirandola, S.

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Preskill, J.

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razavi, M.

X. Ma and M. Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. R.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubenok, A.

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheidl, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shentu, G.-L.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shor, P. W.

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skaar, J.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slater, J. A.

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.-W.

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sundberg, E.

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsegaye, T.

Ursin, R.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-J.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 87, 012320 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weier, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiechers, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.-L.

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

Xu, F.-X.

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H.-L.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.-Q.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zbinde, H.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.-P.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.-M.

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett (1)

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, W. Chen, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, and G.-C. Guo, Chin. Phys. Lett 25, 3547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinde, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys Rev A (1)

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, Phys Rev A 84, 062308 (2011).

Phys. Rev. A (6)

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Yin, Z.-F. Han, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 76, 014304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma and M. Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 87, 012320 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Yin, C.-H. Fred Fung, X. Ma, C.-M. Zhang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, S. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062322 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

Y.-J. Lu and Z.-Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 023601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Frst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
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W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Inf. Comput. (1)

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Science (1)

H.-K. Lo and H. F. Chau, Science 283, 2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “"Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1306.6134 (2013).

P. Chan, J. A. Slater, I. Lucio-Martinez, A. Rubenok, and W. Tittel, “Modeling a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system,” arXiv:1204.0738 (2012).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison between WCS source and MCS source. (a) WCS and MCS_2. (b) WCS and MCS_3. Note that in (a) the lines of infinite decoy states of WCS and MCS_2 overlap each other.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Key rate with fluctuation introduced using MCS_3. Five standard deviations of fluctuation are used. N denotes the number of pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distance increment by MCS when MCS and WCS are both best configured with decoy states, which is also the result of implementing infinite decoy states. The parameter C is for determining the MCS as: α2=Cγξ

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Multiphoton Probabilities and Single-Photon Probabilities of Different Sourcesa

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Table 2. Yields of Subset |φpqa

Equations (13)

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Pμ(n)=μnn!eμ,
|ΨMCS=U^|α=n=0Cn|n,
U^=exp12(ζ*a^2ζa^2)Cn=1n!γ(ξ2γ)n2exp(ξ*2γα2|α|22)Hn(α2γξ),
μ=n=0|Cn|2n.
Qμνw=n=0,m=0Pμ(n)Pν(m)Ynmw,
EμνwQμνw=n=0,m=0Pμ(n)Pν(m)enmwYnmw,
R=Pμ(1)Pν(1)Y11z[1H2(e11x)]Qμνzf(Eμνz)H2(Eμνz),
|nH|mV=12n+mn!m!p=0nq=0mιnp+qCnpCmqp!q!(np)!(mq)!|pD1H|qD1V|npD2H|mqD2V,
pnmHV(|φpq)=|12n+mn!m!ιnp+qCnpCmqp!q!(np)!(mq)!|2.
QnmHV=p=0nq=0mpnmHV(|φpq)(y1+y2+y3+y4),
QμνHV=n=0,m=0Pμ(n)Pν(m)QnmHV,
QμνZ=14(2QμνHV+QμνHH+QμνVV),
EμνZ=QμνHH+QμνVV4QμνZ,

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