Abstract

Directional infrared emission at 1.37 and 5.23 μm is generated in Rb vapors that are stepwise excited by low-power cw resonant light. The radiation at 5.23 μm originating from amplified spontaneous emission on the 5D5/26P3/2 transition and wave mixing consists of forward- and backward-directed components with distinctive spectral and spatial properties. Diffraction-limited light at 1.37 μm generated in the copropagating direction only is a product of parametric wave mixing around the 5P3/25D5/26P3/26S1/25P3/2 transition loop. This highly nondegenerate mixing process involves one externally applied and two internally generated optical fields. Similarities between wave mixing generated blue and 1.37 μm light are demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. A. Orel, and R. J. McLean, J. Phys. B 45, 015401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, Appl. Phys. B 101, 57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 17020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. R. Garrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

Abend, S.

Akulshin, A.

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Akulshin, D. Budker, B. Patton, and R. McLean, “Nonlinear processes responsible for mid-infrared and blue light generation in alkali vapours,” arXiv:1310.2694 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Akulshin, A. M.

A. M. Akulshin, A. A. Orel, and R. J. McLean, J. Phys. B 45, 015401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, Opt. Express 17, 22861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alderson, L.

Altin, P. A.

Arnold, A. S.

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 17020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brekke, E.

Budker, D.

A. Akulshin, D. Budker, B. Patton, and R. McLean, “Nonlinear processes responsible for mid-infrared and blue light generation in alkali vapours,” arXiv:1310.2694 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Cimmino, A.

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Close, J. D.

Debs, J. E.

DePaola, B. D.

J. F. Sell, M. A. Gearba, B. D. DePaola, and R. J. Knize, “Collimated blue and infrared beams generated by two-photon excitation in Rb vapor,” arXiv:1311.4626 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Döring, D.

Dyson, F. J. J.

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 17020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, W. R.

W. R. Garrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gearba, M. A.

J. F. Sell, M. A. Gearba, B. D. DePaola, and R. J. Knize, “Collimated blue and infrared beams generated by two-photon excitation in Rb vapor,” arXiv:1311.4626 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Hall, B. V.

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P.

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, Opt. Express 17, 22861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, S. R.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

Hollberg, L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Ivannikov, V.

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

J. F. Sell, M. A. Gearba, B. D. DePaola, and R. J. Knize, “Collimated blue and infrared beams generated by two-photon excitation in Rb vapor,” arXiv:1311.4626 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Luiten, A.

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, G. J.

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Max, C. E.

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLean, R.

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Akulshin, D. Budker, B. Patton, and R. McLean, “Nonlinear processes responsible for mid-infrared and blue light generation in alkali vapours,” arXiv:1310.2694 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

McLean, R. J.

A. M. Akulshin, A. A. Orel, and R. J. McLean, J. Phys. B 45, 015401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, Opt. Express 17, 22861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, T.

Moshary, F.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orel, A. A.

A. M. Akulshin, A. A. Orel, and R. J. McLean, J. Phys. B 45, 015401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patton, B.

A. Akulshin, D. Budker, B. Patton, and R. McLean, “Nonlinear processes responsible for mid-infrared and blue light generation in alkali vapours,” arXiv:1310.2694 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Perram, G. P.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, Appl. Phys. B 101, 57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perrella, Ch.

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, G. A.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, Appl. Phys. B 101, 57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

Robins, N. P.

Robinson, H. G.

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rzazewski, K.

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

Schultz, J. T.

Scully, M. O.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Sell, J. F.

J. F. Sell, M. A. Gearba, B. D. DePaola, and R. J. Knize, “Collimated blue and infrared beams generated by two-photon excitation in Rb vapor,” arXiv:1311.4626 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Sidorov, A. I.

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, Opt. Express 17, 22861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, B.

Sulham, C. V.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, Appl. Phys. B 101, 57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Truong, G.-W.

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Vernier, A.

Walker, G.

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, J. D.

Yudin, V. I.

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Zibrov, A. S.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, Appl. Phys. B 101, 57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, J. Opt. B 5, S479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. B (3)

A. M. Akulshin, B. V. Hall, V. Ivannikov, A. A. Orel, and A. I. Sidorov, J. Phys. B 44, 215401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. A. Orel, and R. J. McLean, J. Phys. B 45, 015401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Akulshin, Ch. Perrella, G.-W. Truong, R. McLean, and A. Luiten, J. Phys. B 45, 245503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

W. Happer, G. J. MacDonald, C. E. Max, and F. J. J. Dyson, Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. W. Boyd, M. S. Malcuit, D. J. Gauthier, and K. Rzazewski, Phys. Rev. A 35, 1648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Garrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, V. L. Velichansky, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, H. G. Robinson, A. B. Matsko, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Atomic Physics, E. Arimondo, P. DeNatale, and M. Inguscio, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings, 2001), Vol. 551, p. 204.

J. F. Sell, M. A. Gearba, B. D. DePaola, and R. J. Knize, “Collimated blue and infrared beams generated by two-photon excitation in Rb vapor,” arXiv:1311.4626 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Rb atom energy levels involved in frequency conversion. (b) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Intensity of (i) copropagating 5.23 μm radiation and (ii) blue fluorescence recorded simultaneously as a function of the 776 nm laser detuning from the maximum excitation of Rb to the 5D5/2 level, while the 780 nm laser is locked to the 5S1/2(F=3)5P3/2(F=4) transition. Atomic density N1.0×1012cm3. (b) Backward-directed emission at 5.23 μm (profiles i and ii) at 2.9 and 5.0 mW of first-step laser power, respectively, as a function of the 776 nm laser detuning. The power at 776 nm is 1.6 mW. Profile (iii) represents blue fluorescence recorded at 2.9 mW of the 780 nm laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum power of collimated forward- and backward-directed radiation at 5.23 μm (same scale) and blue light (rescaled) generated for different power of the 780 nm laser, while the power at 776 nm is 1.6 mW. Rb number density in the cell N3×1012cm3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Forward-directed emission detected with the on-axis photodiode (i) and transverse blue fluorescence (ii) detected simultaneously as a function of the 776 nm laser detuning from the maximum Rb excitation to the 5D5/2 level, while the 780 nm laser is locked to the 5S1/2(F=3)5P3/2(F=4) transition. Laser light is not focused. Atomic density N7×1011cm3. (b) Curves (i) and (iii) show forward-directed emission detected with the off-axis and on-axis photodiodes, respectively, for focused laser light and N7×1012cm3. Curve (ii) represents blue fluorescence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectrum of the collimated forward-directed emission due to FWM at Rb density in the cell N3×1012cm3. (b) Atomic number density dependences of the forward-directed emission at 1.37 μm and blue fluorescence.

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