Abstract

A novel scheme to generate broadband high-repetition-rate optical frequency combs and low phase noise microwave signals simultaneously is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating an optical frequency comb generator in an optoelectronic oscillator loop, more than 200 lines are generated for a 25 GHz optical frequency comb, and the single-sideband phase noise is as low as 122dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset for the 25 GHz microwave signal. 10 and 20 GHz optical frequency combs and microwave signals are also generated. Unlike the microwave frequency synthesizer, the phase noise of the microwave signals generated by this new scheme is frequency independent.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, Y. Shao, J. Yu, and L. Tao, Opt. Lett. 38, 552 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Seeds, M. J. Fice, K. Balakier, M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. Dijk, M. Pepper, G. Aeppli, A. G. Davies, P. Dean, E. Linfield, and C. C. Renaud, Opt. Express 21, 22988 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

S. Xiao, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Opt. Lett. 34, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Electron. Lett. 45, 170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aeppli, G.

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balakier, K.

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chembo, Y. K.

Chi, N.

Chtioui, M.

Davies, A. G.

Dean, P.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Dijk, F.

Dong, Z.

Enami, T.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fice, M. J.

Freude, W.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

Kallfass, I.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, S.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lamponi, M.

Larger, L.

Leaird, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leuther, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Linfield, E.

Liu, S.

T. T. Ng, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium (ECOC, 2008), paper Tu.3.D.2.

Lopez-Diaz, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

Nakagawa, K.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Natrella, M.

Newbury, N. R.

Ng, T. T.

T. T. Ng, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium (ECOC, 2008), paper Tu.3.D.2.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 20, 10059 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium (ECOC, 2008), paper Tu.3.D.2.

Renaud, C. C.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 20, 10059 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium (ECOC, 2008), paper Tu.3.D.2.

Rubiola, E.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

Shao, Y.

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 20, 10059 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

Tessmann, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volyanskiy, K.

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zhang, J.

Zwick, T.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Xiao, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, Electron. Lett. 45, 170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 540 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, Nat. Photonics 7, 977 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. T. Ng, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium (ECOC, 2008), paper Tu.3.D.2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed low noise and broadband optical frequency comb generation based on an optoelectronic oscillator. PM, phase modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photo-detector, ESA; electrical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectra for the 25 GHz repetition-rate frequency comb. Before the optical filter with different spans: (a) 5 nm span, (b) 10 nm span, and (c) 60 nm span. (d) After the optical filter with 10 nm span.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SSB phase noise of the 25 GHz oscillation microwave signal in the OEO.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of the broadband optical frequency comb generation based on a dual-loop OEO. PM, phase modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photodetector; ESA, electrical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electrical spectra for the 25 GHz microwave signal oscillating in the dual-loop OEO. (a) 100 MHz span; (b) 1 MHz span.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SSB phase noise comparison for the 25 GHz microwave signals oscillating in OEOs with different fiber loops: the long loop (blue curve), the short loop (black curve), and the dual-loop (red curve).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical spectra for the 10 and 20 GHz repetition-rate optical frequency combs. (a) 10 GHz one with 5 nm span; (b) 20 GHz one with 5 nm span.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

SSB phase noise comparison between different driving microwave signals generated by the synthesizer and the proposed scheme. Black line: 10 GHz signal generated by synthesizer. Green line: 20 GHz signal generated by synthesizer. Red line: 10 GHz signal generated by the OEO. Blue line: 20 GHz signal generated by the OEO.

Equations (1)

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L(f)=12(2qρPDRP+FkBTPRF+b1f)[1+(δv2f)2],

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