Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a fast and efficient silicon thermo-optic switch based on reverse breakdown of the pn junction. Benefiting from the direct heating of silicon waveguide by embedding the pn junction into the waveguide center, fast switching with on/off time of 330 and 450 ns and efficient thermal tuning of 0.12nm/mW for a 20 μm radius microring resonator are achieved, indicating a high figure of merit of only 8.8mW·μs. The results here show great potential for application in the future optical interconnects.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (6)

W. Robert, Nature Photonics 6, 577 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chen, W. J. Wang, W. F. Guo, Z. Gong, H. Q. Zhou, Q. Zhou, X. Q. Jiang, and J. Y. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 12593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and Y. K. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 18977 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 37, 4236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2004 (1)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4 (2013).

Chen, L.

Chen, W. W.

Chen, Y. K.

Chu, T.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DeVos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Gong, Z.

Green, W. M. J.

Guo, W. F.

Heyn, P. D.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jahnes, C. V.

Jiang, X. Q.

Kash, J. A.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lee, B. G.

Li, G.

Li, X.

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 4220 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. Y.

Li, Z.

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 4220 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lu, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4 (2013).

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Nielson, G. N.

Reano, R. M.

Robert, W.

W. Robert, Nature Photonics 6, 577 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rose, C. D.

Schow, C. L.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shaw, M. J.

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Sun, J.

Sun, P.

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Timurdogan, E.

Trotter, D. C.

Vaerenbergh, T. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, W. J.

Watts, M. R.

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Wright, J. B.

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Yang, J. Y.

Yang, M.

Young, R. W.

Yu, J.

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 4220 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. Z.

Yu, Y.

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 38, 4220 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. D.

Zhang, X.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4 (2013).

Zheng, X.

Zhou, H. Q.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4 (2013).

Zhou, Q.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 4 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

W. Robert, Nature Photonics 6, 577 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. Xiong, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Commun. 285, 4368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, Opt. Commun. 312, 148 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

http://www.silvaco.com/examples/tcad/section44/example6/index.html .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic view of the thermal-optic microring switch based on the reverse breakdown of pn junction. The light blue and pink regions represent P and N type-doped silicon. (b) Schematic 3D view of the waveguide with the pn junction embedded in the center. (c) and (d) are the simulated temperature distribution and transient response of the pn junction under reverse breakdown. The heating and cooling time constant are τheat=380ns and τcool=410ns.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated silicon microring switch. (b) Recorded optical spectra with the bias voltage varied from 8.6V to 9.5V. The inset shows the tested I-V curve of the pn junction. (c) Calculated tuning efficiency of our switch.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-domain response of the microring switch. (a) Applied electrical square-wave signal. (b) Measure optical response with a on/off time of 330 and 450 ns.

Equations (1)

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Pπ·τ=P·FSR2·Δλ·τ,

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