Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of radially polarized Bessel–Gaussian beams from a c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with a hemispherical cavity configuration by proper mode control. The output beam has an annular-shaped intensity distribution with radial polarization. When the beam is focused, the intensity pattern changes to a multi-ring, which is a typical characteristic of the lowest transverse mode of vector Bessel–Gaussian beam. Higher-order modes of vector Bessel–Gaussian beam are also observed from the same cavity by slightly changing the cavity alignment. The experimental results show a good agreement with the simulation results for both focal and far fields. The present method is a simple and direct way for generating vector Bessel–Gaussian beams.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
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L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
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M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
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L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
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Biener, G.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buchter, S. C.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. C.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, A.

Elfström, H.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M.

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fei, S.

Florés-Perez, A.

Forbes, A.

Gori, F.

F. Gori and G. Guattari, Opt. Commun. 64, 491 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Greene, P. L.

Grongan, M. D. W.

Guattari, G.

F. Gori and G. Guattari, Opt. Commun. 64, 491 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hakola, A.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Hashimoto, N.

Hasman, E.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Hernández, J.

Hibi, T.

Horanai, H.

Hui, Z.

Ito, A.

Jáuregui, R.

Jianhong, H.

Jing, D.

Jinhui, L.

Kajava, T.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Katranji, E. G.

Khiko, A. N.

Kleiner, V.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, Y.

Kurihara, M.

Lai, Y. S.

Li, Y.

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mhlanga, T.

Milione, G.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, T.

Niv, A.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
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Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pääkkönen, P.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, W. P.

Ramchandran, S.

Ryzhevich, A. A.

Sato, A.

Sato, S.

Schimpf, D. N.

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shutao, D.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Simonen, J.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, R.

R. Takeuchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, J. Opt. 15, 075710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Mapa, M. L.

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tovar, A. A.

Turunen, J.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepùlveda, K.

Vyas, S.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M. D.

Wen, W.

Wenxiong, L.

Yan, G.

Yokoyama, H.

Yonezawa, K.

Yongge, C.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

J. Opt.

R. Takeuchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, J. Opt. 15, 075710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Protocols

M. Antkowiak, M. L. Torres-Mapa, D. J. Stevenson, K. Dholakia, and F. J. Gunn-Moore, Nat. Protocols 8, 1216 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfström, J. Simonen, P. Pääkkönen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Commun. 238, 335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Gori and G. Guattari, Opt. Commun. 64, 491 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett, 29, 238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerically calculated intensity distributions for the lowest transverse mode of radially polarized (m=0) Bessel–Gaussian beam for three different value of β with ω0=0.1mm at the beam waist (a) and in the far field (b). The dimensions are 200μm×200μm (a) and 14mm×14mm (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental and calculated results of a radially polarized Bessel–Gaussian beam obtained from a c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser for (a) total intensity distribution, and (b)–(e) intensity distributions after passing through a linear polarizer. Each arrow indicates the direction of the polarizer. The dimensions of the figures are 7mm×7mm, m=0, β=0.02k, ω0=0.1mm, and z=0.1m.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental and calculated results of intensity distributions at focal plane for a radially polarized Bessel–Gaussian beam obtained from a c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser, (a) total intensity distribution, (b)–(e) intensity distributions after passing through a linear polarizer. The dimensions of the figures are 0.2mm×0.2mm, m=0, β=0.02k, ω0=0.1mm, and z=0.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam: (a) total intensity, and (b)–(d) intensity distributions after passing through a linear polarizer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated intensity distributions for higher-order vector Bessel–Gaussian beams. The dimensions of the figure are 14mm×14mm, β=0.02k, and ω0=0.1mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental results of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam with m=5: (a) total intensity and (b)–(d) intensity distributions after passing through a linear polarizer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Calculated results for a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam (m=5): (a) total intensity and (b)–(d) intensity distributions after passing through a linear polarizer. The dimension is 14mm×14mm (β=0.02k and ω0=0.1mm).

Equations (2)

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E⃗BG(ν)(r,ϕ,z)=E0ω0ω(z)exp[ikz+iψ(z)]×exp{r2[1ω2(z)+ik2R(z)]}Q(z)T(r,ϕ,z),
Te(r,ϕ,z)=[Jm1(u)Jm+1(u)][sin(mϕ)cos(mϕ)]iϕ+[Jm1(u)+Jm+1(u)][cos(mϕ)sin(mϕ)]ir,Tm(r,ϕ,z)=[Jm1(u)+Jm+1(u)][cos(mϕ)sin(mϕ)]iϕ+[Jm1(u)Jm+1(u)][sin(mϕ)cos(mϕ)]ir,

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