Abstract

We investigated the propagation of a squeezed optical field, generated via the polarization self-rotation effect, with a sinusoidally modulated degree of squeezing through an atomic medium with anomalous dispersion. We observed the advancement of the signal propagating through a resonant Rb vapor compared to the reference signal, propagating in air. The measured advancement time grew linearly with atomic density, reaching a maximum of 11±1μs, which corresponded to a negative group velocity of vg7,000m/s. We also confirmed that the increasing advancement was accompanied by a reduction of output squeezing levels due to optical losses, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Science 326, 1074 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Milonni, Fast Light, Slow Light and Left-Handed Light, 1st ed. (IOP, 2005).
  3. M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. H. Agha, G. Messin, and P. Grangier, Opt. Express 18, 4198 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. E. Mikhailov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 425 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Novikova, A. B. Matsko, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Steck, Rubidium 87 D Line Data (Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 2010).
  22. U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

2014 (1)

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

2012 (2)

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

I. H. Agha, G. Messin, and P. Grangier, Opt. Express 18, 4198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Science 326, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Novikova, A. B. Matsko, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agha, I. H.

Aharonov, Y.

Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akamatsu, D.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arikawa, M.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, S.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Science 326, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brezger, B.

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. B.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

Corzo, N. V.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

Dogariu, A.

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Failache, H.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, A.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Science 326, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, R. T.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, Q.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

Grangier, P.

Horrom, T.

T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korystov, D.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozuma, M.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

Lobino, M.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massou, F.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

I. Novikova, A. B. Matsko, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Messin, G.

Mikhailov, E. E.

T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Milonni, Fast Light, Slow Light and Left-Handed Light, 1st ed. (IOP, 2005).

Nagatsuka, S.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noel, T. W.

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Novikova, A. B. Matsko, and G. R. Welch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reznik, B.

Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ries, J.

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Sautenkov, V. A.

Shi, Z.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steck, D. A.

D. A. Steck, Rubidium 87 D Line Data (Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 2010).

Stern, A.

Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, T.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valente, P.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, U.

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

Yashchuk, V.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, Y.

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. 12, 104007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

T. Horrom, I. Novikova, and E. E. Mikhailov, J. Phys. B 45, 124015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (1)

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, J. B. Clark, Q. Glorieux, T. Li, N. V. Corzo, and P. D. Lett, New. J. Phys. 16, 013011 (2014).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Vogl, R. T. Glasser, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 86, 031806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, M. Arikawa, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aharonov, B. Reznik, and A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni, and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Science 326, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. W. Milonni, Fast Light, Slow Light and Left-Handed Light, 1st ed. (IOP, 2005).

D. A. Steck, Rubidium 87 D Line Data (Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(i) Example of the modulated squeezed vacuum noise power of the bypass before (a) and after interaction with Rb atoms (b). Zero corresponds to the averaged shot noise level. (ii), (iii) The zoom-ins of the averaged and normalized squeezing traces around the modulation zero crossing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simplified interaction scheme for PSR squeezing generation. The two states |+ and | represent the orthogonal superpositions of the ground-state Zeeman substates that are involved in the interactions of a linearly polarized pump optical field Ωω0 with the hyperfine excited states |c and |d. Here ω0 is the optical frequency of the pump field. Two optical fields that close the four-wave mixing loop, αω0±ω, represent the quantum noise fluctuations of the orthogonally polarized vacuum field at the detection frequency ω.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example polarization rotation signal as a function of longitudinal magnetic field B in the interaction cell. Only the central part of the wide rotation feature is visible (as an overall positive trend), and the region near zero magnetic field is characterized by a negative slope due to the narrower rotation feature. The laser power is 9.5 mW at the entrance of the interaction cell.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured advancement Δta of the modulated squeezed vacuum as a function of the atomic density. The pump laser power before the squeezing cell is 10 mW. Each point represents a time difference extracted from fitting the input and output signals with the sine function. The uncertainties of the individual fits are too small to see.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Noise figure F, based on the estimated transmission of the squeezed vacuum through the interaction Rb cell, and also estimated using Eq. (3) from the measured average group delay, shown in Fig. 5.

Equations (4)

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ϕ=L2cω0[n+(B)n(B)]Lcω0(n±ω)B=0gμBB,
Δta=LcLvgLc|ω0nαω|.
F=e2γΔta.
a^out=Ta^in+1T2u^,

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