Abstract

Frequency and intensity noise are characterized for erbium-doped fiber (EDF) random lasers based on Rayleigh distributed feedback mechanism. We propose a theoretical model for the frequency noise of such random lasers using the property of random phase modulations from multiple scattering points in ultralong fibers. We find that the Rayleigh feedback suppresses the noise at higher frequencies by introducing a Lorentzian envelope over the thermal frequency noise of a long fiber cavity. The theoretical model and measured frequency noise agree quantitatively with two fitting parameters. The random laser exhibits a noise level of 6Hz2/Hz at 2 kHz, which is lower than what is found in conventional narrow-linewidth EDF fiber lasers and nonplanar ring laser oscillators (NPROs) by a factor of 166 and 2, respectively. The frequency noise has a minimum value for an optimum length of the Rayleigh scattering fiber.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

2010

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, Nat. Photonics 4, 204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. Foster, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2002

N. Nakagawa, Phys. Rev. D 65, 082002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. Chiu and M. Hastings, Proc. SPIE 2992, 371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

1970

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Alcon-Camas, M.

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Express 19, 18486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Basov, N. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Blauvelt, H.

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chaikina, E. I.

Chen, L.

T. Zhu, X. Bao, and L. Chen, Opt. Commun. 285, 1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, X. Bao, and L. Chen, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, B.

B. Chiu and M. Hastings, Proc. SPIE 2992, 371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D. V.

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Express 19, 18486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

El-Taher, A. E.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foster, S.

S. Foster, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, Nat. Photonics 4, 204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagné, M.

Harper, P.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. G.

Hastings, M.

B. Chiu and M. Hastings, Proc. SPIE 2992, 371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Academic, 2009).

Jia, X. H.

Kablukov, S. I.

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Kovalev, V. I.

Kryukov, P. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, N.

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leskova, T. A.

Letokhov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lizárraga, N.

Méndez, E. R.

Miller, G. A.

Nakagawa, N.

N. Nakagawa, Phys. Rev. D 65, 082002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M.

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Academic, 2009).

Podivilov, E. V.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puente, N. P.

Rao, Y. J.

Saxena, B.

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Express 19, 18486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, Opt. Lett. 35, 1100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vatnik, I. D.

Wang, Z. N.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. X.

Yariv, A.

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, Electron. Lett. 47, 1040 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhu, J. M.

Zhu, T.

T. Zhu, X. Bao, and L. Chen, Opt. Commun. 285, 1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, X. Bao, and L. Chen, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, and N. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Yoshino, Electron. Lett. 47, 1040 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, Nat. Photonics 4, 231 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, Nat. Photonics 4, 204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. Zhu, X. Bao, and L. Chen, Opt. Commun. 285, 1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. Foster, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 84, 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D

N. Nakagawa, Phys. Rev. D 65, 082002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. Chiu and M. Hastings, Proc. SPIE 2992, 371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Academic, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the EDF-RDFB laser. FBG, fiber Bragg grating (1539.4 nm); EDF, erbium-doped fiber (1.3 m); WDM, wavelength division multiplexer (1550nm/980nm); RSF, Rayleigh-scattering fiber; ISO, isolator. Pump laser wavelength: 980 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RIN measurements for the random lasers (with variable lengths) and the EDF fiber laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FNSD for the random lasers with different Rayleigh fiber lengths. Parameter values for the theoretical curves are shown in Table 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FNSD of the random laser (1000 m) compared with EDF fiber laser (NP-Photonics) and NPRO laser (Lightwave Electronics Nd:YAG).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter Values for Frequency Noise Curves in Fig. 3

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Er(t)=REin(t)0L/νeαντeiϕL(t2τ)dτ,
Er(t)=KEin(t)(1+iΦ(t)),
K=R0eαντdτ,
Φ(t)=0ϕL(t2τ)eαντdτ0eαντdτ.
SΦ˙(ω)=|Φ˙(ω)|2SΦ˙(ω)=(αν)2(αν)2+4ω2Sϕ˙L(ω),
SRandom(ω)=(αν)2(αν)2+4ω2Aω+B,

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