Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally investigate 90° submicrometer radius bends (SRB) of metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides that are plasmonic waveguides fabricated with standard CMOS technology. We focus on the bends of MISIM waveguides with a wide (e.g., 160–220 nm) silicon line. This study shows that the bend efficiently turns the direction of the MISIM waveguide by 90° if its radius is about 0.7 μm. Moreover, we discuss the fact that the bend may be superior to a SRB of a silicon photonic waveguide when it is used to implement a ring resonator with a high quality factor and small volume.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (7)

M. P. Nielsen and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 4601708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

J.-S. Shin, M.-S. Kwon, C.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, Appl. Opt. 52, 5733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Lou, D. Dai, L. Thylen, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Express 21, 20041 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Opt. Express 20, 5867 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, C. Awada, S. Boutami, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and R. E. de Lamaestre, Opt. Express 20, 8974 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kwon, J.-S. Shin, S.-Y. Shin, and W.-G. Lee, Opt. Express 20, 21875 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chu, Y. Akimov, P. Bai, and E.-P. Li, Opt. Lett. 37, 4564 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, and D. H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M.-S. Kwon, Opt. Express 19, 8379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, Opt. Commun. 284, 2141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Akimov, Y.

Ashfar, A.

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

Awada, C.

Bai, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bian, Y.

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, Opt. Commun. 284, 2141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cadien, K.

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

Charra, F.

Chen, L.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choo, H.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H.-S.

Dai, D.

de Lamaestre, R. E.

Douillard, L.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

M. P. Nielsen and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Gong, Q.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1997), Vol. I, pp. 275–367.

Ikonic, Z.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 4601708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, R. W.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 4601708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-K.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kurth, M. L.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-S.

Kwong, D. L.

Lee, C.-H.

J.-S. Shin, M.-S. Kwon, C.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, W.-G.

Li, E.-P.

Li, X.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lou, F.

Lynch, D. W.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1997), Vol. I, pp. 275–367.

Michel, J.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mu, J.

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. G.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. P.

M. P. Nielsen and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

Schuck, P. J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, Opt. Commun. 284, 2141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seok, T. J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-S.

J.-S. Shin, M.-S. Kwon, C.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kwon, J.-S. Shin, S.-Y. Shin, and W.-G. Lee, Opt. Express 20, 21875 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-Y.

J.-S. Shin, M.-S. Kwon, C.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kwon, J.-S. Shin, S.-Y. Shin, and W.-G. Lee, Opt. Express 20, 21875 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Staffaroni, M.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. J.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 4601708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, Opt. Commun. 284, 2141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Tjahjana, L.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, and D. H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tobing, L. Y. M.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, and D. H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M. C.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yablonovitch, E.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. H.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, and D. H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, T.

Zhu, J.

Zhu, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, and D. H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nielsen and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mu, L. Chen, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 131107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonić, and R. W. Kelsall, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 4601708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J.-S. Shin, M.-S. Kwon, C.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. K. Gramotnev, M. G. Nielsen, S. J. Tan, M. L. Kurth, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nano Lett. 12, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, Nat. Photonics 6, 838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, Opt. Commun. 284, 2141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) (1)

M. P. Nielsen, A. Ashfar, K. Cadien, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 36, 294 (2013).

Other (1)

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1997), Vol. I, pp. 275–367.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure for the analysis of the 90° SRB. (a) Structure of the MISIM waveguide with one 90° SRB on the xy-plane at z=125nm. (b) and (c) Cross-sectional structures of the Si waveguide and the MISIM waveguide. The dimensions in (b) and (c) reflect those of the realized structures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results of the MISIM waveguide with one 90° SRB. (a) Excess losses of the MISIM waveguide SRB (black filled circles) and the Si waveguide SRB (red solid line), which were calculated with the FDTD method. The excess loss of the MISIM waveguide SRB, which is based on the propagation loss of the bend mode, is drawn as the blue solid line. The black solid line related to the excess loss of the MISIM waveguide SRB is a guide for the eyes. (b) Excess loss of the MISIM waveguide SRB versus the length lM of the MISIM waveguide after the SRB. (c) Distributions of Re[Hz] on the xy-plane at z=125nm in the MISIM waveguide SRBs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Surface SEM image of the realized MISIM waveguide with two consecutive 90° SRBs. The inset shows an enlarged image of the SRB. (b) Schematic diagram of the MISIM waveguide with two consecutive 90° SRBs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental (red filled circles with the error bars) and calculated (black solid line with black open circles) excess loss of the MISIM waveguide with two consecutive 90° SRBs versus rb for (a) wS160nm, (b) wS190nm, and (c) wS220nm.

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