Abstract

We present an experimental analysis of the angular distribution of the emission of a random laser (RL) operating in the diffusive regime (1% volume fraction of scatterers). The RL ensemble was made of silica particles suspended in a 1:1 methanol:water matrix with Rhodamine 6G dye as the active medium. We found that, for specific pumping-energy-dependent scattering strength, the RL spectrum reached stable features that were angularly preserved. From the analysis, we propose that this defines a novel parametric condition that may well be the equivalent of the RL critical volume, as proposed by Letokhov.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Photonics 3, 246 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967).
  5. A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.
  10. R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).
  11. I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Barrera and A. García-Valenzuela, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Mokhtari, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, Appl. Opt. 44, 7858 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

2010 (1)

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Photonics 3, 246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Barrera and A. García-Valenzuela, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967).

Altman, I. S.

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, R. G.

Bilmes, G. M.

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, A.

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. D.

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cuando-Espitia, N.

N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.

de Araújo, C. B.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flores-Flores, J.

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

Galembeck, A.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Segundo, C.

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

García-Segundo, C.

N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.

García-Valenzuela, A.

Gogorza, C.

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Cordero, J.

N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.

Jesus-Silva, A. J.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967).

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, A.

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mokhtari, T.

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quispe-Sicha, R.

N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.

Ranea-Sandoval, H. F.

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Espíndola, M.

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

Saniger, J. M.

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

Sato-Berrú, R.

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

Song, J.

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, C. M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thareja, R. K.

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villagrn-Muniz, M.

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Photonics 3, 246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Villagrn-Muniz, C. Garcia-Segundo, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, C. Gogorza, and G. M. Bilmes, Appl. Phys. B 61, 361 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. Sato-Berrú, J. M. Saniger, J. Flores-Flores, and M. Sanchez-Espíndola, Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 237 (2013).

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Photonics 3, 246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Altman, D. Lee, J. D. Chung, J. Song, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev. B 63, 161402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, X. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 67, 161101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967).

Other (1)

N. Cuando-Espitia, J. Hernández-Cordero, C. García-Segundo, and R. Quispe-Sicha, in Advanced Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMD5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental array. The input end of the optical fiber is mounted on a rotatable arm yielding angular displacement (θ) around the cylindrical cell (10 mm diameter). The pump beam defines the azimuthal origin (i.e., θ=0) around the cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angular measurements for different particle concentrations: (a) scattering of the pump beam from the particles and (b) intensity of the RL emission.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RL spectrum for different angles and for a fixed pump energy (5mJ/pulse): (a) 1.05×1011 particles per milliliter and (b) 3.98×1012 particles per milliliter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the gain medium (Rhodamine 6G).

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