Abstract

Dichromatic phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low circadian action are proposed for low-luminance photobiologically safe outdoor illumination. The LEDs feature the partial conversion of blue radiation in an orange phosphor with the resulting correlated color temperature in the “firelight” range of 1700–2500 K. The circadian action factor, which is the ratio of the biological efficacy of radiation due to the excitation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells to the mesopic luminous efficacy of radiation, is considerably lower than that of commercial white pc LEDs. The equivalent general color-rendering index estimated with regard to the reduced color-discrimination ability of human vision at low luminances has appropriate values in between those of common white pc LEDs and high-pressure sodium lamp.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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A. Haans and Y. A. W. de Kort, J. Environ. Psychol. 32, 342 (2012).
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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, Appl. Opt. 51, 8423 (2012).
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L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, Build. Environ. 46, 1984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Viénot, M.-L. Durand, and E. Mahler, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1433 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, Lighting Res. Technol. 41, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. D. Rollag, J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 396 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, Proc. IEEE 93, 1691 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, Science 295, 1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Gall, Licht 54, 1292 (2002).

2001

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, J. Physiol. 535, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1963

1951

1941

A. A. Kruithof, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65 (1941).

Arendt, J.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, J. Physiol. 535, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atici, Ç.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Auškalnyte, A.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

Bareika, T.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellia, L.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, Build. Environ. 46, 1984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, Science 295, 1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Bierman, A.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and R. Hamner, Lighting Res. Technol. 44, 386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bisegna, F.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, Build. Environ. 46, 1984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bliumas, R.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, Lighting Res. Technol. 41, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, G. C.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. R. J.

Byrne, B.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

Chen, C.-H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, March28–31, 2009, pp. 2798–2800.

Chen, Y.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, March28–31, 2009, pp. 2798–2800.

Cinzano, P.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, H. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Czeisler, C. A.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Dabašinskas, L.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

de Kort, Y. A. W.

A. Haans and Y. A. W. de Kort, J. Environ. Psychol. 32, 342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, F. A.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, Science 295, 1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Durand, M.-L.

F. Viénot, M.-L. Durand, and E. Mahler, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1433 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elvidge, C. D.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Falchi, F.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, 1997).

Figueiro, M. G.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and R. Hamner, Lighting Res. Technol. 44, 386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Fotios, S.

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, Lighting Res. Technol. 41, 245 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gall, D.

D. Gall, Licht 54, 1292 (2002).

Gamlin, P. D.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Gerner, E.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

Glickman, G.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

Greeson, J. M.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

Haans, A.

A. Haans and Y. A. W. de Kort, J. Environ. Psychol. 32, 342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haim, A.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hamner, R.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and R. Hamner, Lighting Res. Technol. 44, 386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanifin, J. P.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, J. Neurosci. 21, 6405 (2001).

Hirosaki, N.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, H. F.

Jüstel, T.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kareiva, A.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katelnikovas, A.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keith, D. M.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kruithof, A. A.

A. A. Kruithof, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65 (1941).

Li, F.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, March28–31, 2009, pp. 2798–2800.

Liang, L.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lockley, S. W.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Lucas, R. J.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Lukkien, J. J.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, E.

F. Viénot, M.-L. Durand, and E. Mahler, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1433 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menkara, H.

H. Menkara and C. Summers, “Light emitting device having silicate fluorescent phosphor,” U.S. patent6,982,045 (January03, 2006).

Mitomo, M.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, 1997).

O’Hagan, J. B.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Özçelebi, T.

Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peirson, S. N.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Petrulis, A.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

Price, L. L. A.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Provencio, I.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and R. Hamner, Lighting Res. Technol. 44, 386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reklaitis, I.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
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Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
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P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
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R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
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M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, Proc. IEEE 93, 1691 (2005).
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K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, J. Physiol. 535, 261 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

Song, X.

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, March28–31, 2009, pp. 2798–2800.

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L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, Build. Environ. 46, 1984 (2011).
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P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
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V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
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R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
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P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
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X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
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H. Menkara and C. Summers, “Light emitting device having silicate fluorescent phosphor,” U.S. patent6,982,045 (January03, 2006).

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D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, Science 295, 1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
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K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, J. Physiol. 535, 261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

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Vaikevicius, H. P.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
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V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, Appl. Opt. 51, 8423 (2012).
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P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

Winkler, H.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.-J.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, Appl. Opt. 51, 8423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, Proc. IEEE 93, 1691 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, Appl. Phys. A 64, 417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Build. Environ.

L. Bellia, F. Bisegna, and G. Spada, Build. Environ. 46, 1984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Ç. Atici, T. Özçelebi, and J. J. Lukkien, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 788 (2011).
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M. D. Rollag, J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 396 (2008).
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F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, J. Environ. Manage. 92, 2714 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

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Lighting Res. Technol.

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[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, Mater. Lett. 59, 749 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

A. Katelnikovas, T. Bareika, P. Vitta, T. Jüstel, H. Winkler, A. Kareiva, A. Žukauskas, and G. Tamulaitis, Opt. Mater. 32, 1261 (2010).
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A. A. Kruithof, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65 (1941).

Phys. Status Solidi R

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, Phys. Status Solidi R 3, 215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, Proc. IEEE 93, 1691 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

P. Vitta, R. Stanikūnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevičius, and A. Žukauskas, Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, Science 295, 1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Li, D. Chen, X. Song, and Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, March28–31, 2009, pp. 2798–2800.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, P. Vitta, R. Bliumas, A. Auškalnytė, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, L. Dabašinskas, and A. Žukauskas, “Subjective evaluation of luminence distribution for intelligent outdoor lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol., doi: 10.1177/1477153513491760.
[CrossRef]

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R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci., doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004.
[CrossRef]

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, Recommended System for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance, CIE Publication 191 (CIE, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Solid, dashed, dotted, and dash-dotted thin lines: photopic, scotopic, and mesopic (for two mesopic adaptation luminances of 0.3, and 2cd/m2) luminous efficacy functions, respectively [19]; solid bold line, Gall’s circadian action efficacy function normalized to 1817 (bio)lm/W [18].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SPDs of the proposed “firelight” LEDs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Portion of the CIE 1931 diagram with the chromaticity coordinates of the InGaN emitter, five phosphors, and resulting pc LEDs shown. Bold line, Planckian locus.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Proposed pc LEDs and Common Light Sources

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ac,mes=Kc0380nm780nmC(λ)S(λ)dλKmes0380nm780nmVmes(λ)S(λ)dλ,
Ra,mes=100γ(L)(100Ra),

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