Abstract

A method for improved performance of feed-forward carrier-envelope phase stabilization in amplified laser sources is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The phase stabilization scheme is applicable for a broad range of repetition rates spanning from subhertz to 100 kHz. The method relies on driving an acousto-optic frequency shifter by few-cycle transients. The phase of these transients suitably controls the grating phase of the generated index grating inside the shifter material. This approach removes beam pointing as well as amplitude noise issues observed in continuously driven feed-forward schemes. The synthesis of these gratings can be understood as the acoustic equivalent of mode-locking or acoustic frequency combs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kakehata, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 27, 1247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Assion, A.

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, B.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Gademann, G.

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Vernaleken, B. Schmidt, M. Wolferstetter, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and P. Hommelhoff, Opt. Express 20, 18387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Holzwarth, R.

A. Vernaleken, B. Schmidt, M. Wolferstetter, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and P. Hommelhoff, Opt. Express 20, 18387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

Husakou, A.

Ina, H.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

Keller, U.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

B. Borchers, S. Koke, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 36, 4146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 29, 632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, M.

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, Nature 475, 78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lücking, F.

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P.-M.

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plé, F.

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, Nature 475, 78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Borchers, S. Koke, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 36, 4146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

Takeda, M.

Telle, H. R.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vernaleken, A.

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolferstetter, M.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat. Photonics

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, Nature 475, 78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left column: schematics. ÷N: divider. IL: in-loop interferometer. OL: OOL interferometer. PA: power amplifier. AOFS: acousto-optic frequency shifter. DSO: digital sampling oscilloscope. Middle column: voltage versus time at four different locations in the signal processing chain: (1) trigger pulse after pulse generator. (2) fCEO signal. (3) AOFS driver signal. (4) OOL fCEO signal. Right column: spectral representations of middle column.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(d) Filtered OOL transients measured at identical sensitivity. famp=5.2kHz. Histogram information is encoded in the lightness of the color scale. Measured beat frequencies: (a) fOOL=4.1MHz, (b) 6.7 MHz, (c) 14.1 MHz, and (d) 11.7 MHz. The in-loop beat signal is replaced by an rf generator in (d). (e) rms phase jitter versus delay as measured in (b), which showed the lowest phase jitter. Dashed line: linear fit to measured data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase noise analysis at a GD of 2 μs. famp=5.2kHz. Black traces: total measured phase noise; red traces: noise induced by fCEO drift. (a) Temporal phase evolution. (b) Power spectral density of (a). (c) Integrated phase noise versus frequency.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase noise analysis (2 μs GD). Black traces: total measured phase noise; red traces: noise induced by fCEO drift. (a) Phase evolution of 18,462 segments (famp=2.5Hz). (b) 10 min subset of the phase evolution. (c) Spectral density of the phase noise plotted in (a). (d) Integrated phase noise versus frequency.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fi=fCEO+ifamp,(i=n,,n)
fOOL=(fCEOfSAW)modfrep.
φCE(k)(Δt)=φ0(k)+2πfCEO(k)Δt,

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