Abstract

Femtosecond laser pulses were used for the direct point-by-point inscription of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in a single fabrication step without postprocessing. An electro-optic amplitude modulator is used in the setup to generate a defined delay between two identical laser pulse trains for the grating inscription. The grating structure with a central phase shift is formed by focusing the modulated laser pulses into the core of a fiber, while the fiber is translated with a constant velocity. The induced phase shift leads to a narrow transmission band with a bandwidth considerably below 10 pm within the stop band of the FBG. The inscribed FBGs show a birefringence of 3.9×105 whereas their temperature and strain sensitivities are 10.4pm/K and 1.4pm/μstrain, respectively. The fabrication process is fast and offers a high grade of flexibility for the control of all grating parameters.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

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[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

2004 (3)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Uttamchandani and A. Othonos, Opt. Commun. 127, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Ams, M.

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, in Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics (Laser Institute of America, 2006), p. 360.

Armes, D.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

Cole, M. J.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z. C.

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

Ding, H.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

Ferdinand, P.

Fernandes, L. A.

Fertein, E.

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 24, 1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Gatti, D.

Glenn, W. H.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).

Grenier, J. R.

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janner, D.

Jovanovic, N.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

Laporta, P.

LeBlanc, M.

M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 24, 1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Legoubin, S.

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

Longhi, S.

Lu, C.

Marques, P. V. S.

Marshall, G. D.

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 2988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 19844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, in Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics (Laser Institute of America, 2006), p. 360.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

Mckee, P. F.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).

Niay, P.

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Othonos, A.

D. Uttamchandani and A. Othonos, Opt. Commun. 127, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. J.

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

Tünnermann, A.

Uttamchandani, D.

D. Uttamchandani and A. Othonos, Opt. Commun. 127, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

Voigtländer, C.

Wang, D. N.

Williams, R. J.

Withford, M. J.

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 2988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 19844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, in Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics (Laser Institute of America, 2006), p. 360.

Xia, L.

Yao, J. P.

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

Zeng, F.

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

Zervas, M. N.

Zhou, F.

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett (1)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Legoubin, E. Fertein, M. Douay, P. Bernage, and P. Niay, Electron. Lett. 27, 1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, and Z. C. Deng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1392 (2005).

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Uttamchandani and A. Othonos, Opt. Commun. 127, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Liu, J. J. Pan, C. Gu, F. Zhou, and L. Dong, Opt. Eng. 43, 1916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).

Other (1)

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, in Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics (Laser Institute of America, 2006), p. 360.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for the pbp inscription of PSFBGs with femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of the laser pulse amplitude modulation. (a) Schematic of femtosecond laser pulses with a repetition rate of 5 kHz. (b) Formation of two laser pulse trains (100 Hz) separated by a delay of Δt after the electro-optical amplitude modulation. (c) Resulting PSFBG in the fiber core, consisting of two similar FBGs with a grating period of Λ and a gap ΔΛ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Setup for the evaluation of the reflection and transmission characteristic of the fabricated PSFBGs. The laser wavelength was tuned by ramping the diode current, while the transmitted and reflected light from the PSFBG was measured with two photodiodes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflection and transmission spectra of pbp inscribed PSFBG with a bandwidth of 8 pm for the narrow transmission band.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical and measured transmission spectra. A refractive index modulation of 2.33×104 was used for the calculation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength splitting of 42 pm for the narrow transmission band through orthogonal polarization states. The corresponding birefringence is 3.9×105.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Measured temperature and (b) strain dependency of the narrow transmission band wavelength for polarization states corresponding to the fast and slow axis of the fiber grating. The sensitivities are 10.4pm/K and 1.4pm/μstrain, respectively.

Metrics