Abstract

In this work we investigate the optical limiting property of polystyrene–zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanotop composite films, using an open aperture Z-scan technique. The nanocomposites are prepared for different loading concentrations of ZnO and are fabricated using spin and dip coating techniques. On exposing the films to a pulsed nanosecond laser at 532 nm, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) coefficient is found to be greater for spin-coated films compared to dip-coated films. The measured NLA coefficient is found to be enhanced with an increase in loading concentration of ZnO in the monomer for both spin- and dip-coated films.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
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  10. A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. V. Kaneva and C. D. Dushkin, Bulg. Chem. Commun. 43, 259 (2011).
  21. C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2014

M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

N. V. Kaneva and C. D. Dushkin, Bulg. Chem. Commun. 43, 259 (2011).

2010

H. Xiong, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 4251 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1998

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 2039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 4 (1990).

Akundi, M. A.

Alencar, M. A.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aneesh, P. M.

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, C. S.

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bahae, M. S.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 4 (1990).

Bai, X.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C. J.

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. L.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deepthy, A.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Divya, S.

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dushkin, C. D.

N. V. Kaneva and C. D. Dushkin, Bulg. Chem. Commun. 43, 259 (2011).

Frye, G. C.

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, P.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, P.

M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guan, D. Y.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. B.

D. B. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 2039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haripadmam, P. C.

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hickmann, J. M.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hor, T. S. A.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurd, A. J.

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Irimpan, L.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janotti, A.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraj, M. K.

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

John, H.

M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

John, J.

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaneva, N. V.

N. V. Kaneva and C. D. Dushkin, Bulg. Chem. Commun. 43, 259 (2011).

Kavitha, M. K.

M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, B.

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kukreja, L. M.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G. W.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meneghetti, M. R.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ning, T.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panigrahi, S.

N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parija, B.

N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

Sahu, N.

N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 4 (1990).

Shen, H.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Souza, R. F.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sreeja, R.

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srikant, V.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Thankappan, A.

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Torkelson, J. M.

D. B. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 2039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Underhill, P.

D. B. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 2039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Stryland, E. W.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 4 (1990).

Venkatram, N.

Wang, E.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, H.

H. Xiong, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 4251 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. F. Souza, M. A. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Jia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Haripadmam, M. K. Kavitha, H. John, B. Krishnan, and P. Gopinath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bulg. Chem. Commun.

N. V. Kaneva and C. D. Dushkin, Bulg. Chem. Commun. 43, 259 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 4 (1990).

Indian J. Phys.

N. Sahu, B. Parija, and S. Panigrahi, Indian J. Phys. 83, 493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xiong, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 4251 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

H. Shen, B. L. Cheng, G. W. Lu, D. Y. Guan, Z. H. Chen, and G. Z. Yang, J. Phys. D 39, 233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

M. K. Kavitha, H. John, and P. Gopinath, Mater. Res. Bull. 49, 132 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Sreeja, J. John, P. M. Aneesh, and M. K. Jayaraj, Opt. Commun. 283, 2908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Commun. 281, 2938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

A. Thankappan, S. Divya, S. Thomas, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Laser Technol. 52, 37 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

T. Ning, P. Gao, W. Wang, H. Lu, W. Fu, Y. Zhou, D. Zhang, X. Bai, E. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Mater. 31, 931 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci.

D. B. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 2039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

C. J. Brinker, G. C. Frye, A. J. Hurd, and C. S. Ashley, Thin Solid Films 201, 97 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission electron micrograph of an individual ZnO nanotop.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV–Visible absorption spectra of spin- [curve (a)] and dip-coated [curve (b)] films for 0.5% loading of ZnO nanotops.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PL spectra of (a) ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in water and (b) polystyrene–ZnO nanotop composite films fabricated with the spin coating [curve (1)] and dip-coating [curve (2)] techniques, for ZnO concentration of 0.5%. The excitation wavelength is 325 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized Z-scan transmittance of spin-coated and dip-coated films for maximum loading concentration (2 wt. %) of ZnO in monomer, for an input fluence of 150μJ/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of with loading concentration of ZnO in the monomer for spin-coated [curve (a)] and dip-coated films [curve (b)].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ(3)=χR(3)+iχI(3),
χI(3)=n02ε0c2ωβ
χR(3)=2n02ε0cγ,
T(z,S=1)=(1π1/2q0(z,0))ln[1+q0(z,0)exp(τ2)]dτ,
Leff=(1exp(αL))α,

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